DK: Politics Book

DK-Politics-ajk.txt o MyeBooksMenu o MyeBooks123 o MyeBooksAbc 20201106-20210127 705 5* (20220224-0241)
Politics o Amazon


What a mountain of knowledge! Just to my taste and upbuilding. To the extent that I lost my right of copying more text. So I grabbed another means, screenshots. Now I have a system of screenshots. But, in the end, they are not very practical as notes. Better scroll the book on and on. A good model for the structure of any ebook form textbook. I am just constructting one. Have read Philosophy as my first DK revolutionary easy readers. Am intending to read the whole lot of them as a well-earned dessert as an 83 year oldboy economics professor. Have already ordered Religion and a couple of others. Warmly recommend to anybody.

Kindle introduction word to word confirmed. Five stars generously earned.


Какая гора знаний! Просто в моем вкусе и настроении. До такой степени, что я потерял право копировать больше текста. Так что я схватил другое средство, скриншоты. Теперь у меня есть система скриншотов. Но, в конце концов, они не очень практичны в качестве нот. Лучше пролистайте книгу и продолжайте. Хорошая модель для структуры любой электронной книги в виде учебника. Я только что конструирую. Я прочитал «Философию» как своего первого революционного легкого читателя DK. Я собираюсь рассматривать всех их как заслуженную десерт, как 83-летний заслуженный профессор экономики. Уже заказал Религию и еще парочку. Всем настоятельно рекомендую.

Разжечь введение Киндле слово в слово подтверждено. Щедро заработано пять звезд.


Mikä vuori tietoa! Juuri minun makuuni ja ylösrakennuksekseni. Siinä määrin, että menetin oikeuden kopioida enemmän tekstiä. Joten tartuin toiseen keinoon, kuvakaappauksiin. Nyt minulla on selaussivuna kuvakaappausten järjestelmä. Mutta loppujen lopuksi ne eivät ole kovin käytännöllisiä muistiinpanoina. Selaa mieluummin aina vain itse kirjaa. Hyvä malli minkä tahansa e-kirjamuotoisen oppikirjan rakenteelle. Rakennan juuri yhtä. Olen lukenut Filosofian ensimmäisenä DK:n vallankumouksellisena helposti luettavana. Aion lukea ne kaikki hyvin ansaittuna jälkiruokana 83-vuotiaana eläkeukkona ja taloustieteen professorina. Olen jo tilannut Uskonnon ja pari muuta. Suosittelen lämpimästi kenelle hyvänsä.

Kindle-esittely sanasta sanaan vahvistettu. Hyvin ansaitut viisi tähteä tälle tietovarastolle.

Huomautukset Remarks Замечания


This easy-to-understand guide to politics and government introduces more than 80 of the most important theories and big ideas of leaders and politicians throughout history.

The Politics Book makes government and politics easy to understand by explaining the big ideas simply, using clear language supported by eye-catching graphics. The key events in political history are outlined from the origins of political thinking by Confucius and Aristotle to modern-day activists such as Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela. Helpful mind maps break down their important concepts into bitesize chunks to make the subject accessible to students of politics and anyone with an interest in how government works. A handy reference section also provides a glossary of key terms and a directory of significant political figures.

Filled with thought-provoking quotes from great political thinkers such as Nietzsche, Malcolm X, Karl Marx, and Mao Zedong, The Politics Book gives context to the world of government and power. Pagetop

Parametre lines at the beginning of the reader notes
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DK-Politics-ajk.txt o MyeBooks-guide

Sisällysluettelo Contents Содержание (Code: (1,2,3,4,5))

17000201 Political realism
190003 Rise of ideology
22000301 A disputed future
3010002 If your desire is for good, the people will be good
5010003 Confucius The art of war is of vital importance to the state
5010004 Sun Tzu Plans for the country are only to be shared with the learned
5010005 cities will never have rest from their evils
5010006 Plato Man is by nature a political animal
5010007 Aristotle A single wheel does not move
5010008 Chanakya If evil ministers enjoy safety and profit, this is the beginning of downfall
5010009 Han Fei Tzu The government is bandied about like a ball
5010010 Cicero
27010011 IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Confucianism
27010012 FOCUS Paternalist
29010013 The superior man
31010014 Justifying hereditary rule
34010015 The importance of ritual
36010016 Crime and punishment
39010017 The state philosophy
41010018 Mozi,3,Han Fei Tzu,3,Sun Yat-Sen,3,Mao Zedong
43010019 Military strategy
46010020 Knowing when to fight
47010021 Military intelligence
52010022 A unifying code
57010023 The good life
59010024 Ideal Forms
61010025 Educating kings
66010026 Naturally social
67010027 The good life
69010028 Species of rule
75010029 Advising the sovereign
78010030 The end justifies the means
79010031 Intelligence and espionage
84010032 Sun Tzu
84010033 Mozi
84010034 Thomas Hobbes
84010035 Mao Zedong
86010036 Checks and balances
87010037 Aristotle
87010038 Montesquieu
87010039 Benjamin Franklin
87010040 Thomas Jefferson
87010041 James Madison
870101 12,MEDIEVAL POLITICS 30 CE–1515 CE If justice be taken away, what are governments but great bands of robbers?,3,Augustine of Hippo Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you
87010101 Muhammad The people refuse the rule of virtuous men
87010102 Al-Farabi No free man shall be imprisoned, except by the law of the land
87010103 Barons of King John For war to be just, there is required a just cause
87010104 Thomas Aquinas To live politically means living in accordance with good laws
87010105 Giles of Rome The Church should devote itself to imitating Christ and give up its secular power
87010106 Marsilius of Padua Government prevents injustice, other than such as it commits itself
87010107 Ibn Khaldun A prudent ruler cannot, and must not, honour his word
87010108 Niccolò Machiavelli
88010110 The impact of Christianity
89010111 Islamic influence
90010112 Difficult questions
97010113 Peaceful but not pacifist
101010114 Divine wisdom
106010115 Freedom from tyranny
107010116 Towards a parliament
111010117 A reasoned method
111010118 Justice, the prime virtue
113010119 Defining a just war
114010120 Natural and human laws
116010121 The urge for community
117010122 Ruling justly
119010123 Maintaining order
120010124 A radical thinker
1254010125 Cicero,3,Augustine of Hippo,3,Muhammad,3,Marsilius of Padua,3,Francisco Suárez,3,Michael Walzer
129010126 Built on community
130010127 Corruption leads to decline
1377010128 Muhammad,3,Al-Farabi,3,Niccolò Machiavelli,3,Karl Marx
134010129 A realistic approach
136010130 Using human nature
137010131 Advice for new rulers
138010132 Leadership qualities
140010133 Conspiracy is useful
141010134 The end is what counts
142010135 An ideal republic
144010136 Enduring legacy
145010137 “Machiavellian” behaviour
147010138 Han Fei Tzu
147010139 Ibn Khaldun
147010140 Thomas Hobbes
147010141 Carl von Clausewitz
147010142 Antonio Gramsci
14802 13 RATIONALITY AND ENLIGHTENMENT 1515–1770 In the beginning, everything was common to all
148020043 Francisco de Vitoria Sovereignty is the absolute and perpetual power of a commonwealth
148020044 Jean Bodin The natural law is the foundation of human law
148020045 Francisco Suárez Politics is the art of associating men
148020046 Johannes Althusius Liberty is the power that we have over ourselves
148020047 Hugo Grotius The condition of man is a condition of war
148020048 Thomas Hobbes The end of law is to preserve and enlarge freedom
148020049 John Locke When legislative and executive powers are united in the same body, there can be no liberty
148020050 Montesquieu Independent entrepreneurs make good citizens
148020051 Benjamin Franklin
149020101 Absolute sovereignty
150020102 Towards Enlightenment
151020103 Individual rights
153020104 Illegitimate conquests
154020105 Can war be just?
155020106 Francisco Suárez
155020107 Hugo Grotius
159020108 The divine right of kings
160020109 Thomas Aquinas
160020110 Niccolò Machiavelli
160020111 Thomas Hobbes
160020112 John Locke
160020113 Carl Schmitt
163020114 Breaking human laws
164020115 A divine right?
164020116 International law
165020117 Francisco de Vitoria
165020118 Hugo Grotius
165020119 John Locke
1665020120 IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Federalism FOCUS Consociation BEFORE c.350 BCE Aristotle argues that humans are naturally sociable beings.
1576020121 centralizing power and authority in the monarch. AFTER 1762 Jean-Jacques Rousseau claims that the central idea of the social contract must be that sovereignty belongs to the people.
1576020122 1787 The last four articles of the Constitution of the United States of America express the principles of its federalist system of government. 1789 The French Revolution overthrows the king and claims sovereignty for the people.
168020123 Bottom-up, not top-down
169020124 Jean Bodin
169020125 Thomas Hobbes
169020126 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
169020127 Thomas Jefferson
169020128 Michel Foucault
172020129 Power over ourselves
174020130 Francisco Suárez
174020131 John Locke,3,John Stuart Mill
177020132 The cruel state of nature
179020133 Rule by social contract
180020134 A necessary evil
182020135 Collective action
183020136 Pragmatic politics
184020137 Against a state of nature
188020138 Jean Bodin,3,John Locke,3,Jean-Jacques Rousseau,3,John Rawls
191020139 The centrality of laws
193020140 Man’s initial condition
196020141 The right to revolt
197020142 Locke’s legacy
198020143 Montesquieu
198020144 Jean-Jacques Rousseau,3,Thomas Jefferson
198020145 Robert Nozick
201020146 Separation of powers
202020147 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
202020148 Thomas Jefferson
202020149 James Madison
202020150 Alexis de Tocqueville
202020151 Henry David Thoreau
202020152 Noam Chomsky
205020153 Entrepreneurial virtue
207020154 Promoting the public good
207020155 Thomas Paine,3,Thomas Jefferson
209030101 Sovereignty of the people
211030102 New conservatism
213030103 Rethinking the status quo
215030104 Society shaped by politics
216030105 On property and inequality
218030106 The loss of liberty
219030107 Revising the social contract
220030108 Popular sovereignty
221030109 A new contract
223030110 Private versus general will
224030111 A revolutionary icon
1754030112 Niccolò Machiavelli
1754030113 Hugo Grotius
1754030114 Thomas Hobbes
1754030115 Edmund Burke
1754030116 Hannah Arendt
2090302 14 REVOLUTIONARY THOUGHTS 1770–1848 To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man
209030201 Jean-Jacques Rousseau No generally valid principle of legislation can be based on happiness
209030202 Immanuel Kant The passions of individuals should be subjected
209030203 Edmund Burke Rights dependent on property are the most precarious
209030204 Thomas Paine All men are created equal
209030205 Thomas Jefferson Each nationality contains its centre of happiness within itself
209030206 Johann Gottfried Herder Government has but a choice of evils
209030207 Jeremy Bentham The people have a right to keep and bear arms
209030208 James Madison The most respectable women are the most oppressed
209030209 Mary Wollstonecraft The slave feels self-existence to be something external
209030210 Georg Hegel War is the continuation of Politik by other means
209030211 Carl von Clausewitz
242030212 John C. Calhoun A state too extensive in itself ultimately falls into decay
242030213 Simón Bolívar An educated and wise government recognizes the developmental needs of its society
242030214 José María Luis Mora The tendency to attack “the family” is a symptom of social chaos
242030215 Auguste Comte
31104 THE RISE OF THE MASSES 1848–1910 Socialism is a new system of serfdom
311040016 Alexis de Tocqueville Say not I, but we
311040017 Giuseppe Mazzini That so few dare to be eccentric marks the chief danger of the time
311040018 John Stuart Mill No man is good enough to govern another man, without that other’s consent
311040019 Abraham Lincoln Property is theft
311040020 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon The privileged man is a man depraved in intellect and heart
311040021 Mikhail Bakunin That government is best which governs not at all
311040022 Henry David Thoreau Communism is the riddle of history solved
311040023 Karl Marx The men who proclaimed the republic became the assassins of freedom
311040024 Alexander Herzen We must look for a central axis for our nation
311040025 Ito Hirobumi The will to power
311040026 Friedrich Nietzsche It is the myth that is alone important
311040027 Georges Sorel We have to take working men as they are
311040028 Eduard Bernstein The disdain of our formidable neighbour is the greatest danger for Latin America
311040029 José Martí It is necessary to dare in order to succeed
311040030 Peter Kropotkin Either women are to be killed, or women are to have the vote
311040031 Emmeline Pankhurst It is ridiculous to deny the existence of a Jewish nation
311040032 Theodor Herzl Nothing will avail to save a nation whose workers have decayed
311040033 Beatrice Webb Protective legislation in America is shamefully inadequate
311040034 Jane Addams Land to the tillers!
311040035 Sun Yat-Sen The individual is a single cog in an ever-moving mechanism
311040036 Max Weber
41505 16 THE CLASH OF IDEOLOGIES 1910–1945 Non-violence is the first article of my faith
415050037 Mahatma Gandhi Politics begin where the masses are
415050038 Vladimir Lenin The mass strike results from social conditions with historical inevitability
415050039 Rosa Luxemburg An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile hoping it will eat him last
415050040 Winston Churchill The Fascist conception of the state is all-embracing
415050041 Giovanni Gentile The wealthy farmers must be deprived of the sources of their existence
415050042 Joseph Stalin If the end justifies the means, what justifies the end?
415050043 Leon Trotsky We will unite Mexicans by giving guarantees to the peasant and the businessman
415050044 Emiliano Zapata War is a racket
415050045 Smedley D. Butler Sovereignty is not given, it is taken
415050046 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Europe has been left without a moral code
415050047 José Ortega y Gasset We are 400 million people asking for liberty
415050048 Marcus Garvey India cannot really be free unless separated from the British empire
415050049 Manabendra Nath Roy Sovereign is he who decides on the exception
415050050 Carl Schmitt Communism is as bad as imperialism
415050051 Jomo Kenyatta The state must be conceived of as an “educator”
415050052 Antonio Gramsci Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun
415050053 Mao Zedong
51606 17 POST-WAR POLITICS 1945–PRESENT The chief evil is unlimited government
516060054 Friedrich Hayek Parliamentary government and rationalist politics do not belong to the same system
516060055 Michael Oakeshott The objective of the Islamic jihad is to eliminate the rule of an un-Islamic system
516060056 Abul Ala Maududi There is nothing to take a man’s freedom away from him, save other men
516060057 Ayn Rand Every known and established fact can be denied
516060058 Hannah Arendt What is a woman?
516060059 Simone de Beauvoir No natural object is solely a resource
516060060 Arne Naess We are not anti-white, we are against white supremacy,3,Nelson Mandela Only the weak-minded believe that politics is a place of collaboration
516060061 Gianfranco Miglio During the initial stage of the struggle, the oppressed tend to become oppressors
516060062 Paulo Freire Justice is the first virtue of social institutions
516060063 John Rawls Colonialism is violence in its natural state
516060064 Frantz Fanon The ballot or the bullet
516060065 Malcolm X We need to “cut off the king’s head”
516060066 Michel Foucault Liberators do not exist. The people liberate themselves
516060067 Che Guevara Everybody has to make sure that the rich folk are happy
516060068 Noam Chomsky Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance
516060069 Martin Luther King Perestroika unites socialism with democracy
516060070 Mikhail Gorbachev The intellectuals erroneously fought Islam
516060071 Ali Shariati The hellishness of war drives us to break with every restraint
516060072 Michael Walzer No state more extensive than the minimal state can be justified
516060073 Robert Nozick No Islamic law says violate women’s rights
516060074 Shirin Ebadi Suicide terrorism is mainly a response to foreign occupation
516060075 Robert Pape
6450601 18 DIRECTORY
6770602 GLOSSARY
6960606 END
6960607 ###enrufi

Muistiinpanot Highlights Примечания (Code: h)

1 (17)
At its most radical, moralism produces descriptions of ideal political societies known as Utopias, named after English statesman and philosopher Thomas More’s book Utopia, published in 1516,
2 (29)
Confucius’s moral standpoint was firmly rooted in Chinese convention, and had at its heart the traditional virtues of loyalty, duty, and respect.
3 (30)
In Confucius’s view, human nature is not perfect, but it is capable of being changed by the example of sincere virtue. Similarly, society can be transformed by the example of fair and benevolent government.
4 (30)
The notion of reciprocity – the idea that just and generous treatment will be met with a just and generous response – underpins Confucius’s moral philosophy, and it is also a cornerstone of his political thinking.
5 (33)
Confucius said: “The administration of government lies in getting proper men. Such men are to be got by means of the ruler’s own character. That character is to be cultivated by his treading in the ways of duty. And the treading of those ways of duty is to be cultivated by the cherishing of benevolence.”
6 (34)
The ceremonies and rituals allowed people to manifest their devotion to those above them in the hierarchy and their consideration towards those below them.
7 (36)
As with his social structure, he proposed a system based on reciprocity: if you are treated with respect, you will act with respect. His version of the Golden Rule (“do as you would be done by”) was in the negative: “what you do not desire for
8 (40)
Confucianism has not entirely disappeared under China’s communist regime, and it had a subtle influence on the structure of society right up to the Cultural Revolution.
9 (42)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Realism FOCUS Diplomacy and war BEFORE 8th century BCE A “golden age” of Chinese philosophy begins, which produces the so-called Hundred Schools of Thought. 6th century BCE Confucius proposes a framework for civil society based on traditional values.
10 (42)
five years after his death. 1937 Mao Zedong writes On Guerrilla Warfare.
11 (50)
CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Mohism FOCUS Meritocracy BEFORE 6th century BCE Chinese philosopher Laozi advocates Daoism – acting in accordance with the Way (dao). 5th century BCE Confucius proposes a government system based on traditional values enacted by a class of scholars.
12 (52)
"Exaltation of the virtuous is the root of government." Mozi
13 (55)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Rationalism FOCUS Philosopher kings BEFORE 594 BCE The Athenian lawmaker Solon lays down laws that act as the foundation for Greek democracy. c.450 BCE Greek philosopher Protagoras says that political justice is an imposition of human ideas, not a reflection of natural justice.
14 (55)
advocating a more democratic form of government than suggested by Plato’s Republic.
15 (56)
All the citizens could speak and vote at the assembly – they did not elect representatives to do this on their behalf. It should be noted, however, that the “citizens” were a minority of the population; they were free men aged over 30 whose parents were Athenians. Women, slaves, children, younger men, and foreigners or first-generation settlers, were excluded from the democratic process.
16 (57)
Plato went on to become as influential a philosopher as Socrates, and towards the end of his career he turned his considerable intellect to the business of politics, most famously in the Republic. Unsurprisingly, given that he had seen Socrates condemned and was himself from a noble family, Plato had little sympathy for democracy. But neither did he find much to commend in any other existing form of government, all of which he believed led the state into “evils”.
17 (57)
To understand what Plato meant by “evils” in this context, it is important to bear in mind the concept of eudaimonia, the “good life”, which for ancient Greeks was a vital aim. “Living well” was not a question of achieving material wellbeing, honour, or mere pleasure, but rather living according to fundamental virtues such as wisdom, piety, and above all, justice. The purpose of the state, Plato believed, was to promote these virtues so that its citizens could lead this good life. Issues such as protection of property, liberty, and stability were only important in so far as they created conditions that allowed citizens to live well. In his opinion, however, no political
18 (59)
"The chief penalty is to be governed by someone worse if a man will not himself hold office and rule." Plato
19 (60)
These ideal Forms, or Ideas, as Plato called them, exist in a realm outside the world we live in, accessible only via philosophical reasoning and enquiry. It is this that makes philosophers uniquely qualified to define what constitutes the good life, and of leading a truly virtuous life, rather than simply imitating individual examples of virtue.
20 (61)
Socrates chose to drink poison rather than renounce his views. The trial and conviction of Socrates caused Plato to doubt the virtues of the democratic political system of Athens.
21 (61)
In medieval times, Plato’s influence spread to the Islamic empire, and to Christian Europe, where Augustine incorporated them into the teachings of the Church. Later, Plato’s ideas were overshadowed by those of Aristotle, whose advocacy of democracy chimed better with the political philosophers of the Renaissance. "Democracy… is full of variety and disorder, dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequals alike." Plato
22 (63)
Plato used the metaphor of the ship of state to explain why philosophers should be kings. Though he does not seek power, the navigator is the only one who can steer a proper course – much as the philosopher is the only one with the knowledge to rule justly.
23 (65)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Democracy FOCUS Political virtue BEFORE 431 BCE Athenian statesman Pericles states that democracy provides equal justice for all. c.380–360 BCE In the Republic, Plato advocates rule by “philosopher kings” who possess wisdom.
24 (65)
AFTER 13th century Thomas Aquinas incorporates Aristotle’s ideas into Christian doctrine. c.1300 Giles of Rome stresses the importance of the rule of law to living in a civil society. 1651 Thomas Hobbes proposes a social contract to prevent man from living in a “brutish” state of nature.
25 (68)
"Law is order, and good law is good order." Aristotle
26 (70)
"The basis of a democratic state is liberty." Aristotle
27 (71)
Aristotle’s ideas had a growing influence on European political thought throughout the Middle Ages. Despite being criticised for his often authoritarian standpoint (and his defence of slavery and concludes, polity provides the best opportunity to lead a good life. Although Aristotle categorizes democracy as a “defective” form of regime, he argues that it is only second best to polity, and better than the “good” aristocracy or monarchy.
28 (73)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Realism FOCUS Utilitarian BEFORE 6th century BCE The Chinese general Sun Tzu writes his treatise The Art of War, bringing an analytical approach to statecraft. 424 BCE Mahapadma Nanda establishes the Nanda dynasty, and relies on his generals for tactical advice.
29 (75)
The lion capital of Ashoka stood on top of a pillar in Sarnath at the centre of the Mauryan empire. Chanakya helped to found this powerful empire, which came to rule almost the whole of India.
30 (77)
"All things begin with counsel." Chanakya
31 (78)
"Through ministerial eyes others’ weaknesses are seen." Chanakya
32 (80)
Arthashastra comparison with Machiavelli’s The Prince, written around 2,000 years later. However, the central doctrine, of rule by a sovereign and ministers, has more in common with Confucius and Mozi, or Plato and Aristotle, whose ideas Chanakya may have come across as a student in Takshashila.
33 (80)
Elephants played a big role in Indian warfare, often terrifying enemies so much that they would withdraw rather than fight. Chanakya developed new strategies for warfare with elephants.
34 (82)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Legalism FOCUS State laws BEFORE 5th century BCE Confucius advocates a hierarchy based on traditional family relationships, with the sovereign and his ministers ruling by example.
35 (4)
China’s Han dynasty rejects Legalism and adopts Confucianism. 589–618 CE Legalist principles are revived during the Sui dynasty in an attempt to unify the Chinese empire.
36 (84)
"To govern the state by law is to praise the right and blame the wrong." Han Fei Tzu
37 (84)
See also: Confucius
38 (85)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Republicanism FOCUS Mixed constitution BEFORE c.380 BCE Plato writes the Republic, outlining his ideas for an ideal city-state. 2nd century BCE Greek historian Polybius’s The Histories describes the rise of the Roman Republic and its constitution with a separation of
39 (87)
The Roman standard carried the legend SPQR (the Senate and the People of Rome), celebrating the central institutions of the mixed constitution. See also: Plato
40 (88)
The pagan Roman empire had simply had little time for philosophy and theory, but in early Christian Europe, political thinking was subordinated to religious dogma, and the ideas of ancient Greece and Rome were largely neglected.
41 (89)
Meanwhile, in Europe, scholarship had become the preserve of the clergy, and the structure of society was prescribed by the Church, leaving little room for dissent. It would take Islamic influence to bring fresh ideas to medieval Europe, as scholars rediscovered the classical texts. In the 12th century, the texts that Islamic scholars had preserved and translated began to come to the notice of Christian scholars, particularly in Spain, where the two faiths co-existed. News of the rediscovery spread across the Christian world, and despite the suspicion of the Church authorities, there was a rush to find and translate not only the texts, but also their Islamic commentaries.
42 (90)
It was in Florence that Niccolò Machiavelli, a potent symbol of Renaissance thought, shocked the world by producing a political philosophy that was entirely pragmatic in its morality.
43 (91)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Christianity FOCUS Just government BEFORE 4th century BCE In the Republic and Laws, Plato stresses the importance of justice in an ideal state. 1st century BCE Cicero opposes the overthrow of the Roman Republic and its replacement with an emperor.
44 (91)
306 CE Constantine I becomes the first Christian emperor of the Roman empire. AFTER 13th century Thomas Aquinas uses Augustine’s arguments to define a just war. 14th century Ibn Khaldun says that government’s role is to prevent injustice. c.1600 Francisco Suárez and the School of Salamanca create a philosophy of natural law.
45 (92)
Augustine believed that, in practice, few men lived according to divine laws, and the vast majority lived in a state of sin. He distinguished between two kingdoms: the civitas Dei (city of God) and the civitas terrea (city of Earth).
46 (92)
Augustine further points out that even in a sinful civitas terrea, the authority of the state can ensure order through the rule of law, and that order is something we all have a reason to want.
47 (93)
"Without justice an association of men in the bond of law cannot possibly continue." Augustine
48 (93)
in which he described the relationship between the Roman empire and God’s law.
49 (95)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Islam FOCUS Just war BEFORE 6th century BCE In The Art of War, Sun Tzu argues that the military is essential to the state. c. 413 Augustine describes a government without justice as no better than a band of robbers.
50 (95)
AFTER 13th century Thomas Aquinas defines the conditions for a just war. 1095 Christians launch the First Crusade to wrest control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims. 1932 In Towards Understanding Islam, Abul Ala Maududi insists that Islam embraces all aspects of human life, including politics.
51 (98)
This duty is encapsulated in the Islamic idea of jihad (literally “struggle”, or “striving”), which was originally directed against neighbouring cities that attacked Muhammad’s Islamic state. As these were conquered one by one, fighting became a way of spreading the faith and, in political terms, expanding the Islamic empire.
52 (980)
"Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah." Sunni Hadith
53 (98)
Muslim pilgrims pray near the Prophet Muhammad Mosque in the holy city of Medina, Saudi Arabia, where Muhammad established the first Islamic state.
54 (99)
c.622 Constitution of Medina c.632 The Quran 8th and 9th centuries The Hadith See also: Augustine of Hippo,3,Al-Farabi,3,Thomas Aquinas,3,Ibn Khaldun,3,Abul Ala Maududi,3,Ali Shariati
55 (100)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Islam FOCUS Political virtue BEFORE c.380–360 BCE Plato proposes rule by “philosopher kings” in the Republic. 3rd century CE Philosophers such as Plotinus reinterpret Plato’s works, introducing theological and mystical ideas.
56 (100)
9th century The Arab philosopher Al-Kindi brings Classical Greek texts to the House of Wisdom, Baghdad. AFTER c.980–1037 The Persian writer Avicenna incorporates rational philosophy into Islamic theology. 13th century Thomas Aquinas defines the cardinal and theological virtues, and differentiates between natural, human, and divine law.
57 (101)
"The goal of the model state is not only to procure the material prosperity of its citizens, but also their future destiny." Al-Farabi
58 (105)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Parliamentarism FOCUS Liberty BEFORE c.509 BCE The monarchy in Rome is overthrown and replaced by a republic. 1st century BCE Cicero argues for a return to the Roman Republic after Julius Caesar takes power from the Senate. AFTER 1640s The English Civil War and subsequent overthrow of the monarchy establish that a monarch cannot govern without parliamentary consent. 1776 The US Declaration of Independence lists “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” as inherent rights. 1948 The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris.
59 (106)
"To no man will we sell, or deny, or delay, right or justice." Magna Carta, Clause 40
60 (108)
The Houses of Parliament in London, England, has its origin in the insistence of the barons in 1215 that the monarch could not levy additional taxes without the consent of his royal council.
61 (109)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Natural law FOCUS Just war BEFORE 44 BCE In De Officiis, Cicero argues against war, except as a last resort in order to defend the state and restore peace. 5th century Augustine of Hippo argues that the state should promote virtue. 620s Muhammad calls on Muslims to fight in defence of Islam. AFTER 1625 Hugo Grotius puts the theory of just war into the context of international law in On the Law of War and Peace. 1945 The United Nations (UN) Charter prohibits the use of force in international conflict unless authorized by the UN.
62 (110)
European thinkers began to take an interest in other philosophers – in particular, in Aristotle and his Islamic interpreter, the Andalusian polymath Averroes.
63 (111)
"Peace is the work of justice indirectly, in so far as justice removes the obstacles to peace; but it is the work of charity, according to its very notion, that causes peace." Thomas Aquinas
64 (113)
"The only excuse, therefore, for going to war is that we may live in peace unharmed." Cicero
65 (113)
Warfare for the protection of Christian values could be justified in Aquinas’s thinking, including the First Crusade of 1096–99, in which Jerusalem was captured and thousands massacred.
66 (113)
Aquinas identified three distinct basic requirements for just war: rightful intention, authority of the sovereign, and a just cause.
67 (114)
The Geneva Convention consists of four treaties signed between 1864 and 1949 – broadly based on the concepts of just war – defining fair treatment of soldiers and civilians in wartime.
68 (115)
"Reason in man is rather like God in the world." Thomas Aquinas
69 (116)
The laws that we create for ourselves and our societies must be based on natural law, which in itself is a reflection of the eternal law that guides the entire universe.
70 (117)
The Kellogg-Briand Pact, signed in 1928 by 15 countries, forbade its signatories from starting wars. This accorded with Aquinas’s principle that war should only be used to restore peace.
71 (118)
"A just war is in the long run far better for a man’s soul than the most prosperous peace." Theodore Roosevelt
72 (120)
Surprisingly, in view of his notion of the state existing to promote life according to Christian principles, Aquinas does not dismiss the possibility of a legitimate non-Christian ruler.
73 (120)
Aquinas’s view of the requirements of a just war – rightful intention, authority, and just cause – still hold true today, and motivate many involved in anti-war movements.
74 (122)
The United Nations was established in 1945 after World War II with the intention of maintaining international peace and promoting principles that Aquinas would have called natural law.
75 (123)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Constitutionalism FOCUS The rule of law BEFORE c.350 BCE In his Politics, Aristotle says that Man is a political animal by nature.
76 (125)
King Philip IV of France arranged a public burning of the Unam Sanctam. This document attempted to force the king into submission to the papacy – a principle that Giles agreed with. See also: Aristotle,3,Thomas Aquinas,3,Marsilius of Padua,3,Francisco Suárez,3,Thomas Hobbes
77 (126)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Secularism FOCUS Role of the Church BEFORE c.350 BCE Aristotle’s Politics describes the role of the citizen in the administration and jurisdiction of the city-state.
78 (126)
"No elective official who derives his authority from election alone requires any further confirmation or approval." Marsilius of Padua
79 (127)
Management of human affairs is best conducted by legislation, administered by the people, not imposed by divine law, which even the Bible does not sanction. Christ himself, he points out, denied the clergy any coercive power over people in this world, stressing their role as teachers. The Church should therefore follow the example of Jesus and his disciples and return political power to the state. This secular state can then better manage the specialist areas of government, government, such as law and order, and economic and military matters, under a ruler chosen by a majority of the people. See also: Aristotle,3,Augustine of Hippo,3,Giles of Rome,3,Niccolò Machiavelli
80 (128)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Islam FOCUS Corruption of power BEFORE 1027–256 BCE Historians in China during the Zhou dynasty describe the “Dynastic Cycle” of empires declining and being replaced. c.950 Al-Farabi draws on Plato and Aristotle for The Virtuous City, his notion of an ideal Islamic state and the shortcomings of governments. AFTER 1776 In The Wealth of Nations, British economist Adam Smith explains the principles behind the division of labour. 1974 US economist Arthur Laffer uses Ibn Khaldun’s ideas on taxation to produce the Laffer curve, which demonstrated the relationship between rates of taxation and government revenue.
81 (129)
Ibn Khaldun’s assertion that “government prevents injustice, other than such as it commits itself” could be taken for a cynical modern comment on political institutions, or for the realism of Machiavelli.
82 (130)
"When a nation has become the victim of a psychological defeat, then that marks the end of a nation." Ibn Khaldun
83 (136)
An effective leader can harness the weaker traits of humanity in his people to great effect, in the same way that a sheepdog can manipulate a herd of sheep.
84 (137)
"A prince never lacks legitimate reasons to break his promise." Niccolò Machiavelli
85 (138)
Sandro Botticelli’s Adoration of the Magi, painted in 1475, includes representations of the powerful Medici family, who ruled Florence at the time Machiavelli wrote The Prince.
86 (139)
"In judging policies we should consider the results that have been achieved through them rather than the means by which they have been executed." Niccolò Machiavelli
87 (142)
Though Machiavelli did not sanction the use of questionable methods to get things done in private life, he argued that the ruler should use all means necessary to secure the future of the state.
88 (143)
"Since love and fear can hardly exist together, if we must choose between them, it is far safer to be feared than loved." Niccolò Machiavelli
89 (144)
Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was a forceful and ruthless leader, more feared than loved. He claimed inspiration from The Prince.
90 (145)
Machiavelli’s critics, too, came from all sides of the political spectrum, with Catholics accusing him of supporting the Protestant cause, and vice versa. His importance to mainstream political thinking was immense – he was clearly very much a product of the Renaissance, with its emphasis on humanism rather than religion, and empiricism rather than faith and dogma, and he was the first to take an objective, scientific approach to political history.
91 (145)
The term “Machiavellian” is in common usage today, and is usually applied pejoratively to politicians who are perceived (or discovered) to be acting manipulatively and deceitfully. US president Richard Nixon, who attempted to cover up a break-in and wiretapping of his opponent’s headquarters and was forced to resign over the scandal, is a modern-day example of such underhand behaviour.
92 (147)
Richard Nixon resigned as US president in 1974. He authorized a break-in and wiretap at the Democratic National Committee headquarters: actions described as “Machiavellian”.
93 (150)
Later scholars of the period would base their analysis not on theology, but on pure reason. These are closer to so-called “Enlightenment ideals”. Immanuel Kant coined the term Enlightenment in 1784 to describe the capacity and freedom to use one’s own intelligence without the guidance of others.
94 (152)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Just war FOCUS Colonialism BEFORE 1267–72 Thomas Aquinas writes Summa Theologica, the most influential work of Christian theology in the West.
95 (154)
"Ownership and dominion are based either on natural law or human law; therefore they are not destroyed by want of faith." Francisco de Vitoria
96 (157)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Absolutism FOCUS Power of the sovereign BEFORE 380 BCE In the Republic, Plato argues that the ideal state would be ruled by a philosopher king.
97 (157)
1532 CE Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince is published, providing practical advice to sovereigns. AFTER 1648 The Peace of Westphalia creates the modern system of European nation-states. 1651 In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes argues that rule by an absolute sovereign nonetheless involves a social contract with the people. 1922 Carl Schmitt insists that a sovereign ruler has the right to suspend law in exceptional circumstances, such as 1532 CE Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince is published, providing practical advice to sovereigns. AFTER 1648 The Peace of Westphalia creates the modern system of European nation-states. 1651 In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes argues that rule by an absolute sovereign nonetheless involves a social contract with the people. 1922 Carl Schmitt insists that a sovereign ruler has the right to suspend law in exceptional circumstances, circumstances, such as war.
98 (159)
"The sovereign Prince is accountable only to God." Jean Bodin
99 (161)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Philosophy of law FOCUS Natural and human law BEFORE 1274 Thomas Aquinas distinguishes between natural law and human law in his Summa Theologia.
100 (162)
1517 The Protestant Reformation questions the doctrines of the Catholic Church, and is used to justify the divine right of kings. AFTER 1613 King James I of England bans Suárez’s treatise against Anglicanism, since it criticizes the divine right of kings.
101 (162)
1625 Hugo Grotius writes the first systematic treatise on international law. 1787 The Constitution of the United States refers to natural law as the basis for positive law.
102 (171)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Natural law FOCUS Individual rights BEFORE 1517 The protection of liberty is seen as the fundamental political task of a republic by Niccolò Machiavelli Machiavelli in his Discourses. 1532 Francisco de Vitoria lectures on the rights of peoples at the University of Salamanca. AFTER 1789 The French Revolution – with its demands for liberty, equality, and fraternity – transforms France and the rest of Europe.
103 (171)
1958 Political theorist Isaiah Berlin lectures on the Two Concepts of Liberty: negative liberty (non-interference and the opportunity to be free) and positive liberty (the ability to be one’s own master).
104 (175)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Realism FOCUS Social contract BEFORE 1578 The concepts of sovereignty and the divine right of kings emerge, influenced by The Six Books of the Republic by Jean Bodin. 1642–51 The English Civil War temporarily establishes the precedent that the monarch cannot rule without the consent of Parliament. AFTER 1688 The Glorious Revolution in England leads to the 1689 Bill of Rights, which limits the powers of the monarch in law.
105 (189)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Liberalism FOCUS The rule of law BEFORE 1642 A series of conflicts known as the English Civil War breaks out, due to concerns that Charles I would attempt to introduce absolutism in England.
106 (196)
The English Bill of Rights, ratified by King William III in 1689, established limits on the king’s power, conforming with Locke’s contention that a monarch only rules by the consent of the people.
107 (199)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Constitutional politics FOCUS Separation of powers BEFORE 509 BCE After the overthrow of King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the Roman Republic is founded, in which a tripartite system of government evolves.
108 (202)
The United States Congress is the legislative branch of the federal US government; its powers are separate and distinct from those of the President (executive branch) and the Judiciary.
109 (204)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Liberalism FOCUS Entrepreneurial citizens BEFORE 1760 Britain seizes France’s North American colonies, raising the stakes in its land acquisition in the New World.
110 (204)
1776 Thirteen colonies declare their independence from Britain to become the United States of America. AFTER 1879 Thomas Paine’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is published in France. 1868 Black people are granted citizenship in the United States following the ratification of the 14th amendment to the US Constitution.
111 (204)
1919 Women are granted the vote in the United States through the 19th amendment.
112 (212)
IN CONTEXT IDEOLOGY Republicanism FOCUS The general will BEFORE 1513 Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince offers a modern form of politics in which a ruler’s morality and the concerns of state are strictly separate.
113 (1651)
Edmund Burke blames Rousseau for the “excesses” of the French Revolution.
114 (224)
The French Revolution began when an angry mob stormed the Bastille in Paris on 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison was a symbol of royal power.
115 (1754)
Emile 1762 The Social Contract 1770 Confessions See also: Ibn Khaldun
116 (227)
Limit of notes set by publisher reached. ok

Kielikuvat Idioms Идиоми (Code: i)

1 places great emphasis on (45)

Määritelmät Definitions Определения (Code: d)

1 (108)
First created by William the Conqueror (1028–87), the barony was a form of feudal land tenure granted by the king, with certain duties and privileges allocated to the holder. The barons paid taxes to the king in return for their holding of the land, but also had an obligation, the servitium debitum (“service owed”), to provide a quota of knights to fight for the king when asked. In return, the barons were granted the privilege of participation in the king’s council or parliament – but only when summoned to do so by the king. They did not meet regularly and, since the king’s court often moved from place to place, they did not have a regular venue. Although the barons at the time of King John (pictured above) forced Magna Carta on their king, the power of the feudal barony weakened during the 13th century, and was rendered all but obsolete during the English Civil War. Key works 1100 Charter of Liberties 1215 Magna Carta See also: Cicero,3,John Locke,3,Montesquieu,3,Jean-Jacques Rousseau,3,Oliver Cromwell

Henkilöt Persons Личности (Code: p)

Despite his importance in Chinese history, little is known of Confucius’s life. He is traditionally believed to have been born in 551 BCE, in Qufu in the state of Lu, China. His name was originally Kong Qiu (he earned the honorific title “Kong Fuzi” much later), and his family was both respected and comfortably well off. Nevertheless, as a young man he worked as a servant after his father died in order to support his family, and studied in his spare time to join the civil service. He became an administrator in the Zhou court, where he developed his ideas of how a state should be governed, but his advice was ignored and he resigned resigned from the position. He spent the rest of his life travelling throughout the Chinese empire, teaching his philosophy and theories of government. He eventually returned to Qufu, where he died in 479 BCE. Key works Analects Doctrine of the Mean The Great Learning (All assembled during the 12th century by Chinese scholars.)
2 MOZI (54)
It is believed that Mozi was born around the time of Confucius’s death, in Tengzhou, Shandong Province, China, into a family of artisans or possibly slaves. Named Mo Di, he was a woodworker and engineer, and worked at the courts of noble families, rising through the civil service to establish a school for officials and advisors. His philosophical and political views gained him a following and the title Mozi (“Master Mo”). Mohists, as his followers were known, lived according to Mozi’s principles of simplicity and pacifism during the Warring States period, until the Qin dynasty established its Legalist regime. After his death, Mozi’s teachings were collected in The Mozi. Mohism disappeared after the unification of China in 221 BCE, but were rediscovered in the early 20th century. Key work 5th century BCE The Mozi
3 Plato (56)
One of Socrates’ young followers was Plato, who shared his teacher’s inquisitive nature and sceptical attitude. Plato was to become disillusioned with the Athenian system after what he saw as its unfair treatment of his teacher. "Democracy passes into despotism." Plato
4 Emperor Nero (63)
is said to have stood by and done nothing to help while a fire raged in the city of Rome. Plato’s ideal of a philosopher king has been blamed by some for the rise of such tyrants.
The son of a physician to the royal family of Macedon, Aristotle was born in Stagira, Chalcidice, in the north-east of modern Greece. He was sent to Athens aged 17 to study with Plato at the Academy, and remained there until Plato’s death 20 years later. Surprisingly, Aristotle was not appointed Plato’s successor to lead the Academy. He moved to Ionia, where he made a study of the wildlife, until he was invited by Philip of Macedon to be tutor to the young Alexander the Great.
Aurelius Augustine was born in Thagaste (now Souk-Ahras, Algeria) in Roman North Africa, to a pagan father and a Christian mother. He studied Latin literature in Madaurus and rhetoric in Carthage, where he came across the Persian Manichean religion, and became interested in philosophy through the works of Cicero. He taught in Thagaste and Carthage until 373, when he moved to Rome and Milan, and there was inspired by theologian Bishop Ambrose to explore Plato’s philosophy, and later to become a Christian. He was baptised in 387, and was ordained a priest in Thagaste in 391. He finally settled in Hippo (now Bone, Algeria), establishing a religious community and becoming its bishop in 396. As well as his autobiographical Confessions, he wrote a number of works on theology and philosophy. He died during a siege of Hippo by the Vandals in 430. Key works 387–395 On Free Will 397–401 Confessions 413–425 City of God See also: Plato,3,Cicero,3,Thomas Aquinas,3,Francisco Suárez,3,Thomas Hobbes
Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570, shortly after the death of his father. His mother died when he was six, and he was left in the care of his grandparents and an uncle, who employed him managing caravans trading with Syria. In his late 30s, he made regular visits to a cave on Mount Hira to pray, and in 610 he is said to have received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. He began preaching, and slowly gained a following, but was eventually driven from Mecca with his disciples. Their escape to Medina in 622 is celebrated as the beginning of the Muslim calendar. By the time of his death in 632, nearly all of Arabia was under his rule. Key works
The son of the Count of Aquino, Aquinas was born in Roccasecca, Italy, and was schooled in Monte Cassino and the University of Naples. Although expected to become a Benedictine monk, he joined the new Dominican order in 1244 and moved to Paris a year later. In about 1259, he taught in Naples, Orvieto, and the new school in Santa Sabina, and acted as a papal advisor in Rome.
Born in Tunis, Tunisia, in 1332, Ibn Khaldun was brought up in a politically active family and studied the Quran and Islamic law. He held official posts in the Maghreb region of North Africa, where he saw at first hand the political instability of many regimes. While working in Fez, he was imprisoned after a change of government, and after his release moved to Granada in southern Spain, where he led peace negotiations with the Castilian king Pedro the Cruel.
Born in Florence, Niccolò Machiavelli was the son of a lawyer, and is believed to have studied at the University of Florence, but little is known of his life until he became a government official in 1498 in the government of the Republic of Florence. He spent the next 14 years travelling around Italy, France, and Spain on diplomatic business.
Francisco was born in the small Basque town of Vitoria. Prior to taking up his post at the university in Salamanca, de Vitoria spent 18 formative years in Paris, where he studied at the Sorbonne University and lectured in a Dominican college. De Vitoria became a Dominican friar, a professor of theology at the University of Salamanca, and was elected prima chair of theology – the most senior position in the department – in 1526. He was the founding member of the School of Salamanca – an influential group of scholars that included Domingo de Soto, Martin de Azpilcueta, Tomas de Mercado, and Francisco Suárez – who strove to redefine man’s relationship with God within the Catholic tradition. De Vitoria studied the teachings of fellow Dominican and theologian Thomas Aquinas, whose work was a cornerstone of the School of Salamanca. Key works 1532 Of Indians 1532 Of the Spanish War Against the Barbarians 1557 Theological Reflections See also: Thomas Aquinas
12 JEAN BODIN (160)
The son of a wealthy tailor, Jean Bodin was born near Angers in northwest France in 1529. He joined the Carmelite religious order when still very young, and travelled to Paris in 1545 to study under the philosopher Guillaume Prévost. He then studied law in Toulouse, returning to Paris in 1560, where he was made a counsel to the king, and later became the king’s prosecutor.
Suárez was born in the south of Spain and became a Jesuit student in Salamanca at the age of 16. As a theologian and philosopher, he wrote in the same scholastic tradition as Thomas Aquinas, and had considerable influence on the development of international law and the theory of just war. His most influential work was his 1597 Metaphysical Disputations, but he was a productive scholar who wrote many other significant treatises on the relationship between natural law, the state and Church, and theology. Suárez was a dedicated Jesuit – hardworking, disciplined, humble, and pious. He was regarded by contemporaries as one of the greatest living philosophers. Pope Paul V called him Doctor Eximius et Pius, an honorary title, and Pope Gregory XIII is said to have attended his first lecture in Rome. Key works 1597 Metaphysical Disputations 1612 On Laws 1613 Defence of the Catholic and Apostolic Faith against the Errors of Anglicanism
Althusius was born in 1557 in Diedenshausen in Westphalia, a Calvinist area of Germany. Under the patronage of a local count he studied law, philosophy, and theology in Cologne from 1581. After a series of academic appointments, in 1602 he became president of the College of Herborn. In 1604, a year after the publication of Politica, his most important work, he was elected a municipal trustee of the city of Emden. Althusius later became a council member and city elder, acting as a diplomat and lawyer for the city until his death in 1638. Although Politica was widely popular in Althusius’s time, his work was overlooked for the next two centuries since it contradicted the prevailing principle of absolute sovereignty. In the 19th century, Otto von Gierke revived interest in Althusius’s ideas, and today he is considered the forefather of federalism. Key works 1603 Politics: A Digest of its Methods (also known as Politica) 1617 Dicaelogicae
Hugo Grotius was born in 1583 in the city of Delft in the south of Holland during the Dutch Revolt against Spain. Considered by many to be a child prodigy, Grotius entered the University of Leiden at the age of 11, and received his doctorate when he was 16. By the age of 24, he was advocate general for Holland. During a tumultuous period in Dutch history, Grotius was sentenced to life imprisonment in Loevestein Castle for his views on restraining the powers of the Church in civil matters. Grotius escaped to Paris, reportedly in a trunk, and there he wrote his most famous work De Jure Belli ac Pacis. Grotius is widely held to be the father of international and maritime law. His themes of natural law and individual liberty were later taken up by liberal philosophers such as John Locke. Key works 1605 De Jure Praedae Commentarius 1609 Mare Liberum (originally part of De Jure Praedae Commentarius) 1625 De Jure Belli ac Pacis
Born in 1588, Thomas Hobbes was educated at Oxford University in England and would later work as a tutor for William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire. Due to the English Civil War, he spent a decade in exile in Paris where he wrote Leviathan, which has had a profound influence on the way we perceive the role of government and the social contract as a basis for legitimacy to govern. Hobbes’s political philosophy was influenced by his interest in science, and his correspondence with philosophers including René Descartes (1596–1650). Drawing from scientific writings, Hobbes believed that everything could be reduced to its primary components, even human nature. He was inspired by the simplicity and elegance of geometry and physics, and revolutionized political theory by applying such scientific method to its reasoning. He returned to England in 1651, dying in 1679.
17 JOHN LOCKE (198)
John Locke lived in – and shaped – one of the most transformative centuries in English history. A series of civil wars pitted Protestants, Anglicans, and Catholics against each other, and power vacillated between the king and the Parliament. Locke was born in 1632 close to Bristol, England. He lived in exile in France and Holland for large periods of time due to suspicions that he was involved in an assassination plot against King Charles II. His book Two Treatises of Government provided the intellectual foundation for the Glorious Revolution of 1688, which transferred the balance of power permanently from the king to Parliament. He promoted the idea that people are not born with innate ideas, but with a mind like a blank slate – a very modern way of viewing the self. Key works 1689 Two Treatises of Government
Montesquieu was born Charles-Louis de Secondat near Bordeaux in France, and inherited the title of Baron de Montesquieu on the death of his uncle in 1716. He studied law at Bordeaux, but his marriage in 1715 brought him a substantial dowry, which, along with his inheritance, allowed him to concentrate on his literary career, starting with the satirical Persian Letters.
Benjamin Franklin was the son of a soap- and candle-maker who rose to become a statesman, scientist, and inventor. Born in 1706 in Boston, he played a leading role in the long process that brought the United States into being. As a statesman, Franklin opposed the British Stamp Act, was the US ambassador in London and Paris, and is considered one of the most important Founding Fathers of the United States. As a scientist, Franklin is best known for his experiments with electricity. Among his many inventions are the lightning rod, the open stove, bifocal glasses, and the flexible urinary catheter. As an entrepreneur, he was a successful newspaper editor, printer, and author of popular literature. Although he never occupied the highest office in the United States, few other Americans have had a more lasting influence on the country’s political landscape. Key works 1733 Poor Richard’s Almanack 1787 United States Constitution 1790 Autobiography See also: John Locke,3,Montesquieu,3,Edmund Burke
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland. The son of a freeman entitled to vote in city elections, he never wavered in his appreciation of Geneva’s liberal institutions. Inheriting a large library and a voracious appetite for reading, Rousseau received no formal education. At the age of 15, an introduction to the noblewoman Françoise-Louise de Warens led to his conversion to Catholicism, exile from Geneva, and disownment by his father. Rousseau began studying in earnest in his 20s and was appointed secretary to the ambassador to Venice in 1743. He left soon after for Paris, where he built a reputation as a controversial essayist. When his books were banned in France and Geneva, he fled briefly to London, but soon returned to France where he spent the rest of his life. Key works

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