Fullerton George Stuart: An Introduction to Philosophy

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2.MuistiinpanotHighlightsПримечание
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Sisällysluettelo Contents Содержание (Code: (1,2,3,4,5))

101 I. INTRODUCTORY
10101 CHAPTER I THE MEANING OF THE WORD "PHILOSOPHY" IN THE PAST AND IN THE PRESENT
1010101 1. THE BEGINNINGS OF PHILOSOPHY.
9010102 2. THE GREEK PHILOSOPHY AT ITS HEIGHT.
9010103 3. PHILOSOPHY AS A GUIDE TO LIFE.
5010104 4. PHILOSOPHY IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
8010105 5. THE MODERN PHILOSOPHY.
10010106 6. WHAT PHILOSOPHY MEANS IN OUR TIME.
120102 CHAPTER II COMMON THOUGHT, SCIENCE, AND REFLECTIVE THOUGHT
12010201 7. COMMON THOUGHT.
13010202 8. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE.
15010203 9. MATHEMATICS.
16010204 10. THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY.
18010205 11. REFLECTIVE THOUGHT.
2102 II. PROBLEMS TOUCHING THE EXTERNAL WORLD
210201 CHAPTER III IS THERE AN EXTERNAL WORLD?
21020101 12. HOW THE PLAIN MAN THINKS HE KNOWS THE WORLD.
23020102 13. THE PSYCHOLOGIST AND THE EXTERNAL WORLD.
24020103 14. THE "TELEPHONE EXCHANGE.
290202 CHAPTER IV SENSATIONS AND "THINGS"
29020201 15. SENSE AND IMAGINATION.
31020202 16. MAY WE CALL "THINGS" GROUPS OF SENSATIONS?
32020203 17. THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN SENSATIONS AND "THINGS"
36020204 18. THE EXISTENCE OF MATERIAL THINGS.
380203 CHAPTER V APPEARANCES AND REALITIES
38020301 19. THINGS AND THEIR APPEARANCES.
39020302 20. REAL THINGS.
40020303 21. ULTIMATE REAL THINGS.
43020304 22. THE BUGBEAR OF THE "UNKNOWABLE."
470204 CHAPTER VI OF SPACE
47020401 23. WHAT ARE WE SUPPOSED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
48020402 24. SPACE AS NECESSARY AND SPACE AS INFINITE.
49020403 25. SPACE AS INFINITELY DIVISIBLE.
52020404 26. WHAT IS REAL SPACE?
570205 CHAPTER VII OF TIME
57020501 27. TIME AS NECESSARY, INFINITE, AND INFINITELY DIVISIBLE.
58020502 28. THE PROBLEM OF PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE.
60020503 29. WHAT IS REAL TIME?
6503 III. PROBLEMS TOUCHING THE MIND
650301 CHAPTER VIII WHAT IS THE MIND?
65030101 30. PRIMITIVE NOTIONS OF MIND.
66030102 31. THE MIND AS IMMATERIAL.
69030103 32. MODERN COMMON SENSE NOTIONS OF THE MIND.
71030104 33. THE PSYCHOLOGIST AND THE MIND.
72030105 34. THE METAPHYSICIAN AND THE MIND.
750302 CHAPTER IX MIND AND BODY
75030201 35. IS THE MIND IN THE BODY?
76030202 36. THE DOCTRINE OF THE INTERACTIONIST.
79030203 37. THE DOCTRINE OF THE PARALLELIST.
82030204 38. IN WHAT SENSE MENTAL PHENOMENA HAVE A TIME AND PLACE.
83030205 39. OBJECTIONS TO PARALLELISM.
870303 CHAPTER X HOW WE KNOW THERE ARE OTHER MINDS
87030301 40. IS IT CERTAIN THAT WE KNOW IT?
89030302 41. THE ARGUMENT FOR OTHER MINDS.
92030303 42. WHAT OTHER MINDS ARE THERE?
94030304 43. THE DOCTRINE OF MIND-STUFF.
970304 CHAPTER XI OTHER PROBLEMS OF WORLD AND MIND
97030401 44. IS THE MATERIAL WORLD A MECHANISM?
99030402 45. THE PLACE OF MIND IN NATURE.
101030403 46. THE ORDER OF NATURE AND "FREE-WILL."
104030404 47. THE PHYSICAL WORLD AND THE MORAL WORLD.
10904 IV. SOME TYPES OF PHILOSOPHICAL THEORY
1090401 CHAPTER XII THEIR HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
109040101 48. THE DOCTRINE OF REPRESENTATIVE PERCEPTION.
111040102 49. THE STEP TO IDEALISM.
113040103 50. THE REVOLT OF "COMMON SENSE."
115040104 51. THE CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY.
1200402 CHAPTER XIII REALISM AND IDEALISM
120040201 52. REALISM.
124040202 53. IDEAUSM.
1290403 CHAPTER XIV MONISM AND DUALISM
129040301 54. THE MEANING OF THE WORDS.
129040302 55. MATERIALISM.
131040303 56. SPIRITUALISM.
132040304 57. THE DOCTRINE OF THE ONE SUBSTANCE.
135040305 58. DUALISM.
136040306 59. SINGULARISM AND PLURALISM.
1370404 CHAPTER XV RATIONALISM, EMPIRICISM, CRITICISM, AND CRITICAL EMPIRICISM
138040401 60. RATIONALISM.
141040402 62. CRITICISM.
145040403 63. CRITICAL EMPIRICISM.
146040404 64. PRAGMATISM.
15005 V. THE PHILOSOPHICAL SGENCES
1500501 CHAPTER XVI LOGIC
150050101 65. INTRODUCTORY: THE PHILOSOPHICAL SCIENCES.
150050102 66. THE TRADITIONAL LOGIC.
151050103 67. THE "MODERN LOGIC"
151050104 68. LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY.
1550502 CHAPTER XVII PSYCHOLOGY
155050201 69. PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY.
157050202 70. THE DOUBLE AFFILIATION OF PSYCHOLOGY.
1590503 CHAPTER XVIII ETHICS AND AESTHETICS
159050301 71. COMMON SENSE ETHICS.
162050302 72. ETHICS AND PHILOSOPHY.
163050303 73. AESTHETICS.
1650504 CHAPTER XIX METAPHYSICS
165050401 74. WHAT IS METAPHYSICS?
167050402 75. EPISTEMOLOGY.
1690505 CHAPTER XX THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
169050501 76. RELIGION AND REFLECTION.
170050502 77. THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.
1720506 CHAPTER XXI PHILOSOPHY AND THE OTHER SGENCES
172050601 78. THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND NON-PHILOSOPHICAL SOENCES.
172050602 79. THE STUDY OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS.
17506 VI. ON THE STUDY OF PHILOSOPHY
1750601 CHAPTER XXII THE VALUE OF THE STUDY OF PHILOSOPHY
175060101 80. THE QUESTION OF PRACTICAL UTILITY.
176060102 81. WHY PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES ARE USEFUL.
180060103 82. METAPHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.
1830602 CHAPTER XXIII WHY WE SHOULD STUDY THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
183060201 83. THE PROMINENCE GIVEN TO THE SUBJECT.
183060202 84. THE ESPECIAL IMPORTANCE OF HISTORICAL STUDIES TO REFLECTIVE THOUGHT.
183060203 85. THE VALUE OF DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW.
188060204 86. PHILOSOPHY AS POETRY, AND PHILOSOPHY AS SCIENCE.
189060205 87. HOWTO READ THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY.
1920603 CHAPTER XXIV SOME PRACTICAL ADMONITIONS
192060301 88. BE PREPARED TO ENTER UPON A NEW WAY OF LOOKING AT THINGS.
193060302 89. BE WILLING TO CONSIDER POSSIBILITIES WHICH AT FIRST STRIKE ONE AS ABSURD.
194060303 90. DO NOT HAVE TOO MUCH RESPECT FOR AUTHORITY.
197060304 91. REMEMBER THAT ORDINARY RULES OF EVIDENCE APPLY.
198060305 92. AIM AT CLEARNESS AND SIMPUQTY.
199060306 93. DO NOT HASTILY ACCEPT A DOCTRINE.
199060307 NOTES
199060308 INDEX
199060309
199060310
199060311 -----------------------------------------
199060312 ### en
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Muistiinpanot Highlights Примечание (Code: h)

1 (199)
practical admonitions on spirit and method. Had these admonitions been impressed upon me at a time when I was in especial need of guidance, I feel that they would have spared me no little anxiety and confusion of mind. For this reason, I recommend them to the attention of the reader.
2 (1)
The same thoughts can be set forth in plain language, and their significance illustrated by a constant reference to experiences which we all have -- experiences which must serve as the foundation to every theory of the mind and the world worthy of seri...
3 (2)
GEORGE STUART FULLERTON. New York, 1906. CONTENTS PART I
4 (1)
PHILOSOPHY.--The Greek historian Herodotus (484-424 B.C.) appears to have been the first to use the verb "to philosophize."
5 (1)
"philosopher" (etymologically, a lover of wisdom), a certain somewhat unreliable tradition traces it back to Pythagoras (about 582-500 B.C.). As told by Cicero,
6 (1)
At any rate, both the words "philosopher" and "philosophy" are freely used in the writings of the disciples of Socrates (470-399 B.C.), and it is possible that he was the first to make use of them.
7 (5)
Heraclitus, who was so impressed by the constant flux of things that he summed up his view of nature in the words: "Everything flows"; of Empedocles,
8 (9)
Socrates, that greatest of teachers,
9 (9)
In the works of Socrates' disciple Plato (428-347 B.C.) and in those of Plato's disciple Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), abundant justice is done to these fields of human activity. These two, the greatest among the Greek philosophers, differ from each other in many things, but it is worthy of remark that they both seem to regard the whole sphere of human knowledge as their province.
10 (9)
As for Aristotle, that wonderful man seems to have found it possible to represent worthily every science known to his time, and to have marked out several new fields for his successors to cultivate. His philosophy covers physics, cosmology, zoölogy, logic, metaphysics, ethics, psychology, politics and economics, rhetoric and poetics.
11 (9)
Stoic emphasizes the necessity of living "according to nature," and dwells upon the character of the wise man; the Epicurean furnishes certain selfish maxims for getting through life as pleasantly as possible; the Skeptic counsels apathy, an indifference to all things,--blessed is he who expects nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.
12 (5)
Stoic tells us of what the world consists; what was the beginning and what will be the end of things; what is the relation of the system of things to God. He
13 (5)
Epicurean informs us that the world originated in a rain of atoms through space; he examines into the foundations of human knowledge; and he proceeds to make himself comfortable in a world from which he has removed those disturbing elements, the gods...
14 (5)
Skeptic decides that there is no such thing as truth, before he enunciates the dogma that it is not worth while to worry about anything. The philosophy of each school includes a view of the system of things as a whole. The philosopher still regarded the universe of knowledge as his province.
15 (5)
Neo-Platonism, that half Greek and half Oriental system of doctrine which arose in the third century after Christ, the first system of importance after the schools mentioned above. But I must not pass it by without pointing out that the Neo-Platonic ...
16 (8)
attention to Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the two who are commonly regarded as heading the list of the modern philosophers, we find both of them assigning to the philosopher an almost unlimited field.
17 (7)
knowledge has not wholly passed away even in our day. I shall not dwell upon Spinoza (1632-1677), who believed it possible to deduce a world a priori with mathematical precision; upon Christian Wolff (1679-1754), who defined philosophy as the knowledge of the causes of what is or comes into being; upon Fichte (1762-1814), who believed that the philosopher, by mere thinking, could lay down the laws of all possible future experience; upon Schelling (1775-1854), who, without knowing anything worth mentioning about natural science, had the courage to develop a system of natural philosophy, and to condemn such investigators as Boyle and Newton;
18 (7)
Hegel (1770-1831), who undertakes to construct the whole system of reality out of concepts, and who, with his immediate predecessors, brought philosophy for a while into more or less disrepute with men of a scientific turn of mind. I shall come down come down quite to our own times, and consider a man whose conception of philosophy has had and still has a good deal of influence, especially with the general public--with those to whom philosophy is a thing to be taken up in moments of leisure, and cannot be the serious pursuit of a life.
19 (9)
partially-unified knowledge; Philosophy is completely-unified knowledge." [1] Science, he argues, means merely the family of the Sciences-stands for nothing more than the sum of knowledge formed of their contributions.
20 (10)
It savors of temerity to write down such a title as that which heads the present section. There are men living to-day to whom philosophy means little else than the doctrine of Kant, or of Hegel, or of the brothers Caird, or of Herbert Spencer, or even of St. Thomas Aquinas, for we must not forget that many of the seminaries of learning in Europe and some in America still hold to the mediaeval church philosophy.
21 (9)
dose relation between philosophy and religion.
22 (12)
philosophy was once a synonym for the whole sum of the sciences or what stood for such; gradually the several sciences have become independent and the field of the philosopher has been circumscribed. We must admit, moreover, that there is to be found in a number of the special sciences a body of accepted facts which is without its analogue in philosophy.
23 (132)
Spinoza modified Descartes' doctrine in that he refused to regard mind and matter as substances at all. He made them unequivocally attributes of the one and only substance, which he called God.
24 (135)
with Spinoza, call the one Substance God; that is, he may be a Pantheist. On the other hand, he may, with Spencer, call it the Unknowable, and be an Agnostic. Other shades of opinion are open to him, if he cares to choose them.
25 (135)
stands out one broad distinction, that of the physical and the mental.
26 (135)
man who has done no reading in the philosophers is scarcely tempted to obliterate; to him the world consists of two kinds of things widely different from each other; minds are not material things and material things are not minds. We
27 (136)
Pluralism, a word which is meant to cover the various doctrines which maintain that there is more than one ultimate principle or being in the universe.
28 (137)
Empedocles (born about 490 B.C.). This thinker made earth, water, fire, and air the four material principles or "roots” of things. He was not a monist, and we can certainly not call him a dualist.
29 (137)
[2] "The Limits of Evolution, and Other Essays," revised edition. New York, 1905. Page 137 - Note
30 (139)
Thus, he proves the existence of God by the following argument:- I exist, and I find if its cause must be as great as the reality it repres...-this idea I cannot be the author, for it represents something much greater than I, and
31 (139)
61. EMPIRICISM.
32 (140)
Locke, in his "Essay concerning Human Understanding,” undertakes "to inquire into the original, certainty, and extent of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of belief, opinion, and assent."
33 (140)
The first book of the "Essay" is devoted to the proof that there are in the mind of man no "innate ideas" and no "innate principles." That is to say, Locke tries to show that one must not seek, in the "natural light" to which Descartes turned, a distinct and independent source of information,
34 (141)
Hume seemed to have shown, empiricism must run out into skepticism. If all our knowledge has its foundations in experience, how can we expect to find in our possession any universal or necessary truths? May not a later experience contradict an earlier? How can we be sure that what has been will be? Can we know that there is anything fixed and certain in our world?
35 (165)
How, then, does metaphysics differ from philosophy? The difference becomes clear to us when we realize that the word philosophy has a broader and looser signification, and that metaphysics is, so to speak, the core, the citadel, of philosophy.
36 (186)
That the prevailing architecture of a town is ugly can scarcely impress one who is acquainted with no other town.
37 (189)
Truth is truth, whether it be scientific truth or philosophical truth.
38 (189)
we may say that every philosophy worthy of the name is, at least, an attempt at scientific knowledge.
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Fullerton George Stuart: An Introduction to Philosophy
3,4270,201,his,eng,20140601,20140614,5,Fullerton George Stuart: An Introduction to Philosophy
20140601-20140614, 201 pages, 5* SalesInfo o eng

eng An excellent path to philosophy

Fullerton's Introduction to Philosophy is an excellent path to the fascinating aspects of philosophy, still today, although first published hundred years ago. True although he says in his preface the opposite that "there cannot be said to be a beaten path in philosophy" and that he concludes his discussion of 'modern philosophy' by the admonition of his thesis 93. DO NOT HASTILY ACCEPT A DOCTRINE. But that is what philosophy is: a cavalcade of controversies.

Fullerton announces his aim in six points:

  1. To point out what the word "philosophy" means.
  2. To explain the nature of reflective or philosophic thinking.
  3. To give a general view of the main problems in philosophy.
  4. To give account of some of the most important doctrines in philosophy.
  5. To indicate the relation of philosophy to other sciences.
  6. To show that the study of philosophy is of value to us all.

The text is divided into parts correspondingly and emphasized in 93 theses. All in all it is easy to see that behind the presentation there is an experience of years, perhaps decades of teaching the subject to university students. No hunches but systematic and careful and well founded formulations to an audience first time meeting this subject. Therefore still today recommendable an introduction. And for that matter: philosophy is one of the oldest fields of systematic thinking, not outdated or obsolete in a century out of twentyfive at least. So, Fullerton can really be recommended, in the discussive sense of 'Socrates, that greatest of teachers'.

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