John William Draper: History of the Intellectual Development of Europe

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Sisällysluettelo Contents Содержание (Code: (1,2,3,4,5))

101 HISTORY OF THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE. By JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER, M.D., LL.D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of
20101 PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.
20102 CONTENTS.
20103 I. ON THE GOVERNMENT OF NATURE BY LAW.
20104 II. OF EUROPE: ITS TOPOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY.
30105 III. DIGRESSION ON HINDU THEOLOGY AND EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION.
40106 IV. GREEK AGE OF INQUIRY. RISE AND DECLINE OF PHYSICAL SPECULATION.
50107 V. THE GREEK AGE OF FAITH. RISE AND DECLINE OF ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY.
50108 VI. THE GREEK AGE OF REASON. RISE OF SCIENCE.
60109 VII. THE GREEK AGE OF INTELLECTUAL DECREPITUDE. THE DEATH OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY.
70110 VIII. DIGRESSION ON THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INFLUENCES OF ROME. PREPARATION FOR RESUMING THE EXAMINATION OF THE INTELLECTUAL PROGRESS OF EUROPE.
80111 IX. THE EUROPEAN AGE OF INQUIRY. THE PROGRESSIVE VARIATION OF OPINIONS CLOSED BY THE INSTITUTION OF COUNCILS AND THE CONCENTRATION OF POWER IN A PONTIFF. RISE, EARLY VARIATIONS, CONFLICTS, AND FINAL ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY.
90112 X. THE EUROPEAN AGE OF FAITH. AGE OF FAITH IN THE EAST.
90113 XI. PREMATURE END OF THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE EAST. THE THREE ATTACKS, VANDAL, PERSIAN, ARAB.
100114 XII. THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST.
100115 XIII. DIGRESSION ON THE PASSAGE OF THE ARABIANS TO THEIR AGE OF REASON. INFLUENCE OF MEDICAL IDEAS THROUGH THE NESTORIANS AND JEWS.
110116 XIV. THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST—(Continued). IMAGE-WORSHIP AND THE MONKS.
1202 THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE.
120201 I. ON THE GOVERNMENT OF NATURE BY LAW.
180202 Once every year the life of the earth pulsates; now there is an abounding vitality, now a desolation. But what is the cause of all this? It is only mechanical. The earth's axis of rotation is inclined to the plane
22020201 Human variations.
23020202 Kopioitu leikepöydälle Communities, like families, exhibit members in different stages of advance. Groups of men, or nations, are disturbed by the same accidents, or complete the same cycle as the individual. Some scarcely pass beyond infancy, some are destroyed on a sudde...
27020203 Secular variations of nations. We must therefore no longer regard nations or groups of men as offering a permanent picture.
28020204 The death of nations.
28020205 There is nothing absolute in time.
29020206 Nations are only transitional forms.
29020207 Their course is ever advancing, never retrograde.
30020208 The five ages of European life.
31020209 And yet there is free-will for man.
33020210 Changeability of forms and unchangeability of law. hgl:201310160750 Is there an object presented to us which does not bear the mark of ephemeral duration?
33020211 The object of this book is to assert the control of law in human affairs. hgl:201310160756
330203 ile to the invariable, from the transitory to the eternal; from the expedients and II. OF EUROPE: ITS TOPOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. ITS PRIMITIVE MODES OF THOUGHT, AND THEIR PROGRESSIVE VARIATIONS, MANIFESTED IN THE GREEK AGE OF CREDULITY.
59020301 Universal disbelief of the learned. Thus for many ages stood affairs. One after another, historians, philosophers, critics, poets, had given up the national faith, and lived under a pressure perpetually
90020302 Foreign epochs in Greek history. In early Greek history there are, therefore, two leading foreign events: 1st, the opening of the Egyptian ports, B.C. 670; 2nd, the downfall of Old Tyre, 573. The effect of the first was chiefly intellectual; that of...
1020204 IV. GREEK AGE OF INQUIRY. RISE AND DECLINE OF PHYSICAL SPECULATION. Kopioitu leikepöydälle
1510205 V. THE GREEK AGE OF FAITH. RISE AND DECLINE OF ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY.
1790206 VI. THE GREEK AGE OF REASON. RISE OF SCIENCE.
2140207 VII. THE GREEK AGE OF INTELLECTUAL DECREPITUDE. THE DEATH OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY.
2450208 VIII. DIGRESSION ON THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INFLUENCES OF ROME. PREPARATION FOR RESUMING THE EXAMINATION OF THE INTELLECTUAL PROGRESS OF EUROPE.
2710209 IX. THE EUROPEAN AGE OF INQUIRY. THE PROGRESSIVE VARIATION OF OPINIONS CLOSED BY THE INSTITUTION OF COUNCILS AND THE CONCENTRATION OF POWER IN A PONTIFF. RISE. EARLY VARIATIONS, CONFLICTS, AND FINAL ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY.
3120210 X. THE EUROPEAN AGE OF FAITH. AGE OF FAITH IN THE EAST.
3300211 XI. PREMATURE END OF THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE EAST. THE THREE ATTACKS, VANDAL. PERSIAN. ARAB.
3520212 XII. THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST.
3860213 XIII. DIGRESSION ON THE PASSAGE OF THE ARABIANS TO THEIR AGE OF REASON. INFLUENCE OF MEDICAL IDEAS THROUGH THE NESTORIANS AND JEWS.
4160214 XIV. THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST—(Continued). IMAGE-WORSHIP AND THE MONKS.
Pagetop

Muistiinpanot Highlights Примечание (Code: h)

1 (15)
hardly two centuries ago, that doctrine gathered immense force from the discovery of Newton that Kepler's laws, under which the movements of the planetary bodies are executed, issue as a mathematical necessity from a very simple material condition, a...
2 (15)
021 3 the winds, how proverbially inconstant, who can tell whence they come or whither they go! If any thing bears the fitful character of arbitrary volition, surely it is
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An obscuration of the rays of the sun for a few years would compel a redistribution of plants and animals all over the earth; many would totally disappear, and everywhere new comers would be seen.
4 (22)
Variations in the aspect of men are best seen when an examination is made of nations arranged in a northerly and southerly direction;
5 (25)
A national type pursues its
6 (28)
Nations, like individuals, die. Their birth presents an ethnical element; their death, which is the most solemn event that we can contemplate, may arise from interior or from external causes.
7 (28)
Time, to the nation as to the individual, is nothing absolute; its duration depends on the rate of thought and feeling.
8 (29)
The origin, existence, and death of nations depend thus on physical influences, which are themselves the result of immutable laws. Nations are only transitional forms of humanity.
9 (29)
There are five intellectual manifestations to which we may resort—philosophy, science, literature, religion, government.
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The intellectual progress of Europe being of a nature answering to that observed in the case of Greece, and this, in its turn, being like that of an individual, we may conveniently separate it into arbitrary periods, s... of Credulity; 2, the Age of Inquiry; 3, the Age of Faith; 4, the Age of Reason; 5, the Age of Decrepitude; and shall use these designations in the division of my subject in its several chapters. The
11 (33)
I am to draw his thoughts from the tangible to the invisible, from the limited to the i volitions so largely amusing the life of man, to the p... Kopioitu leikepöydälle
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On the Atlantic face of the mountains of Norway it is perpetually raining: the annual depth of water is there 82 inches; but on the opposite side of those mountains is only 21 inches. For similar reasons, Ireland is moist and green, and in Cornwall t...
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Rome the snowy days are 11*; in Venice, 51*; in Paris, 12; in St. Petersburgh, 171. Whatever causes interfere with the distribution of heat must influence the precipitation of snow; among such are the Gulf Stream and local altitude. Hence, on the coast...
14 (38)
Where there are many climates there will be many forms of men. Herein, as we shall in due season discover, lies the explanation of the energy of European life, and the development of its civilization. Food, houses, clothing, bear a certain relation to the isothermal lines.
15 (41)
Since the tertiary period two-thirds of Europe have been lifted above the sea. The Norway coast has been elevated 600 feet, the Alps have been upheaved 2000 or 3000, the Apennines 1000 to 2000 feet. The country between Mont Blanc and Vienna has been ...
16 (42)
Man was contemporary with the cave bear, the cave lion, the amphibious hippopotamus, the mammoth. Caves that have been examined in France or elsewhere have furnished for the stone age, axes, knives, lance and arrow points, scrapers, hammers. The chan...
17 (46)
A local heaven and a local hell are found in every mythology. In Greece, as to heaven, there was a universal agreement that it was situated above the blue sky; but as to hell, much difference of opinion prevailed.
18 (50)
Besides the celestial bodies, the clouds are continually moving over the sky, for ever the breath of that invisible Kopioitu leikepöydälle heir shape. No one can tell whence the wind comes or whither it goes; perhaps it is
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It was an ominous circumstance that the Ionian Greeks, who first began to philosophize, commenced their labours by depersonifying the elements, and treating not of Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades, but of Air, Water, Fire. The destruction of theological con...
20 (54)
How was it possible that the notion of a flat earth, bounded by the horizon and bordered by the circumfluous ocean, could maintain itself when colonies were being founded in Gaul, and the Phoenicians were bringing tin from beyond the Pillars of Hercul...
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It soon became the universal impression that there was an intrinsic opposition between philosophy and religion, and herein public opinion was not mistaken; the fact that polytheism furnished a religious explanation for every natural event made it ess...
22 (65)
To bring nations to surrender themselves to new ideas is not the affair of a day.
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b,01310160806
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In life there is no going back; the morose old man can never resume the genial confi boyhood; even the boy is parted by a long step from the... kindle The Vedas, which are the Hindu Scriptures, and of which there are four, the Rig, Yagust, Saman and Atharvan, are asserted to have been revealed by Brahma.
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They suggest no proselyting spirit, but rather adopt the principle that all religions must be equally acceptable to God, since, if it were otherwise, he would have instituted a single one, and, considering his omnipotence, none other could have possi...
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Buddhism arose about the tenth century before Christ, its founder being Arddha Chiddi, a native of Capila, near Nepaul. Of his epoch there are, however, many statements. The Avars, Siamese, and Cingalese fix it B.C. 600; the Cashmerians, B.C. 1332; t...
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There is no country, except India, which has the same religion now that it had at the I: Kopioitu leikepöydälle
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The fundamental principle of Buddhism is that there is a supreme power, but no
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The Buddhist has no religion, but
30 (81)
men;—Nirwana, the end of successive existences, that state which has no relation to matter, or space, or time, to which and the passage to nonentity, the departing flame of the extinguished taper has gone. It is the supreme end.
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Decorated with these extraneous but popular recommendations, Buddhism has been embraced by two-fifths of the human race. man is entitled to indulge his views on these matters just as he is entitled to indulge his taste in the colour and fashion of his garments; that he has no more right, however, to live without some religious profession than he has a right to go naked... ± 9.31*
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Hycksos, or shepherd kings, a race of Asiatic invaders. These, in their turn, had held dominion for more than five centuries, when an insurrection put an end to their power, and gave birth to the new empire, some of the monarchs of which, for their g...
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serious difficulty in the way of her becoming a naval power; no timber suitable for ship-building grmk in the country—indeed, scarcely enough was to be found to satisfy the demands for the construction of houses and
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Jerusalem, the metropolis of a little state lying directly between the contending powers, and alternately disturbed by each. Opening of the Suez Canal. Azotus for twenty-nine years; that his son Necho reopened the canal between the Nile at Bubastes and the Red Sea at Suez—it was wide enough for two ships to pass—and on being resisted therein by the priests, who feared that...
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The masonry of the Great Pyramid, built thirty-four hundred years before Christ, has never yet been surpassed.
36 (90)
when Jacob went into Egypt, that pyramid had been built as many centuries as have intervened from the birth of Christ to the present day. If Kopioitu leikepöydälle
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I nrntinn 1 A QA Uinklinkt decimal and duodecimal systems of arithmetic were in use; the arts necessary in hydraulic engineering, massive architecture, and the ascertainment of the boundaries of land, had reached no insignificant degree of perfection.
38 (92)
Though doubtless it was in the beginning a mere picture-writing, like that of the Mexicans, it had already, at the first moment we meet with it, undergone a twofold development—ideographic and phonetic; the one expressing ideas, the other sounds.
39 (92)
It is said that one of the Roman emperors was obliged to offer a rmkard for the translation of an obelisk. To the early Christian the hieroglyphic inscription was an abomination, as full of the relics of idolatry, and indicating an inspiration of the devil. He
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Thus, in 1802, Palin thought that the papyri were the Psalms of David done into Chine Denderah were the 100th Psalm, a pleasant ecclesiastical conc...
41 (93)
Kopioitu leikepöydälle ‘brmk documents; it was even asserted that the inscriptions in the temple of Thousands of years have passed since the foundation of the first Egyptian dynasty. The Pyramids have seen the old empire, the Hycksos monarchs, the New Empire, the Persian, the Macedonian, the Roman, the Mohammedan. They have stood while the heavens ...
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Nilometer which measures the height of the flood indicates eight cubits, the crops will be scanty; but if it reaches fourteen cubits, there will be a plentiful harvest. In the spring of the year it may be known how the fields will be in the autumn. A...
43 (95)
The American counterpart of Egypt in this physical condition is Peru, the coast of which is also a rainless district. Peru is the Egypt of civilization of the Western continent.
44 (104)
It might therefore be said, both philosophically and facetiously, that the first principle Importance of water in Egypt, of all things is water.
45 (104)
There was not a peasant to whom it was not apparent that water is the first principle of all things, even of taxation; and, since it was not only necessary to survey lands to ascertain the surface that had been irrigated, but to redetermine their bou...
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out of polytheism to bring forth monotheism; to determine the invariable in the variable; and to ascertain the beginning of things: that he observed how infinite is the sea;
47 (106)
Thales was to establish a coincidence between philosophy and the popular theology a Kopioitu leikepöydälle ffirms that Oceanus is one of the parent-gods of Nature.
48 (107)
Anaximenes also held that even the human soul itself is nothing but air, since life consists in inhaling and exhaling it, and ceases as soon as that process stops.
49 (108)
The air is God. breathing that the air is a life-giving principle to man, nay, even is actually his soul, it would appear to be a just inference that the infinite air is God and that the gods and goddesses have sprung from it.
50 (112)
now the same particle is found in the air next aiding in the composition of a plant, then in the body of an animal, and back in the air once more. In this perpetual Agency of the sun.
51 (113)
Heraclitus of Ephesus, who maintained that the first principle is fire.
52 (113)
"No one has ever been twice on the same stream. Kopioitu leikepöydälle
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regards the soul of a man as a portion of fire migrated from heaven. He carries his ideas of the transitory nature of all phenomena to their last consequences, and illustrates the noble doctrine that all which appears to us to be permanent is only a ...
54 (115)
Anaximander of Miletus, who was contemporary with Thales. He
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He taught that the earth is of a cylindrical form, its base being one-third of its altitude;
56 (116)
Origin of biology, of the chaotic matter by heat and cold. Nay, more, Anaximander reatures on like principles, for the sun's heat, acting upon the primal miry earth. produced filmy bladders or bubbles, and these, becom...
57 (116)
assumes that the earth is cylindrical in shape, and kept in the midst of the heavens by the atmosphere; that the sun is farther off than the fixed stars; and that each of the heavenly bodies is made to revolve by means of a crystalline wheel.
58 (7)
the physical and intellectual. While Reason is thus the prime mover in his philosophy.
59 (119)
Anaxagoras, asserted that by the Intellect alone do we become acquainted with the truth, the senses being altogether
60 (120)
If it were not explicitly stated by the ancients that Pythagoras lived for twenty-two years in Egypt, there is sufficient internal evidence in his story to prove that he had been there a long time.
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he turned his attention inward, asserting the supremacy of virtue and its identity with knowledge, and the necessity of an adherence to the strict principles of justice.
62 (153)
With truth Socrates said, at the close of his noble speech to the judges who had condemned him, "It is now time that we depart—I to die, you to live; but which has the better destiny is unknown to all except God." The future has resolved that doubt....
63 (167)
Some of the more important doctrines of Plato are worthy of further reflection. I shall therefore detain the reader a short time to offer a few remarks upon them.
64 (184)
In a fortunate moment, Philip, the King of Macedon, appointed him preceptor to his son Alexander, an incident of importance in the intellectual history of Europe. It was to the friendship arising through this relation that Aristotle owed the assistan...
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Peripatetics, or walking philosophers.
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Plato therefore trusts to the Imagination, Aristotle to Reason.
67 (185)
Plato regards universals, types, or exemplars as having an actual existence; Aristotle declares that they are mere abstractions of reasoning.
68 (185)
Our induction becomes the more certain as our facts are more numerous, our experience larger. "Art commences when, from a great number of experiences, one general conception is formed which will embrace all similar cases."
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The moment that
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But as soon as we come to the Physics of Aristotle we see at once his weakness. The knowledge of his age does not furnish him facts enough whereon to build, and
71 (189)
his views of the connected chain of organic forms, from the lowest to the highest, are very grand. His metaphysical and physical speculations—for in reality they are nothing but speculations—are of no kind of value. His successful achievements, and a... He expounded the true principles of science, but failed to apply them merely for want of materials. His ambition could not brook restraint. He would rather attempt to construct the universe without the necessary means than not construct it at all. Ar... Reason of the world, "Live in harmony with Nature."
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As Reason is supreme in Nature, it ought to be so in man. Our
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Note Nature, in her operations, aims at the universal, and never spares individuals, but uses them as means for accomplishing her ends. It is for him, therefore, to submit to his destiny, endeavouring continually to establish the supremacy of Reason, and ...
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To breathe is to live; then the breath is the life. If we cease to breathe we die.
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When a rain-drop falls on the leaves of a distant forest, we cannot hear it, but the murmur of many drops composing a shower is audible enough.
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227 3721: 201310160839@ hgl;fourth
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Aristotle insists that, though we must rely on reason, Reason itself must submit to be guided by Experience; and Zeno, taking up the same thought, teaches us that we must appeal to the decisions of common sense.
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pantheistic doctrines of the Nature of God, Universal Animation, the theory of Emanation, Transmutation, Absorption, Transmigration, etc., were adopted, on the other there was by no means an insignificant tendency to atheism and utter infidelity. Eve...
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the conclusion that human life, in its
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For my part, it is my intention to speak with veneration on this great topic, and yet with liberty, for freedom of thought and expression is to me the first of all earthly things.
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emphatically distinguish between Christianity and ecclesiastical organizations.
82 (273)
Rome never considered man as an individual, but only as a thing. Her way to political greatness was pursued utterly regardless of human suffering.
83 (275)
But, as wealth accumulated, besides this inducement for the poor, there were temptations for the ambitious: luxurious appointments and a splendid maintenance, the ecclesiastical dignitaries becoming more than rivals to those of the state.
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intellectual peculiarities of the East and West Eastern theology tends to Divinity, were visibly impressed upon it—the East filled with speculative doctrines, of which the most important were those brought forward by the Platonists of Alexandria, for...
85 (305)
But that they failed of their object in constituting a criterion of truth is plainly demonstrated by such simple facts as that, in the fourth century alone, there were thirteen councils adverse to Arius, fifteen in his favour, and seventeen for the s...
86 (306)
In the Eastern empire the Goths had become permanently settled, having laws of their own, a magistracy of their own, paying no taxes, but contributing 40,000 men to the army.
87 (306)
The city was eighteen miles in circumference, and contained above a million of people—of people, as in old times clamorous for distributions of bread, and wine, and oil.
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Kopioitu leikepöydälle At midnight on the 24th of April, A.D. 410, eleven hundred and sixty-three years from the foundation of the city, the Salarian gate was opened to him by the treachery of slaves; there was no god to defend her in her dire extremity, and Rome was sacke...
89 (309)
Cicero, to whom the good change was due; the writings of that great orator won him over to a love of wisdom, weaning him from the pleasures of the theatre, the follies of divination and superstition. From
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In his philosophical disquisitions on Time, Matter, Memory, this far-famed writer is, however, always unsatisfactory, often trivial. His doctrine that Scripture, as the word of God, is capable of a manifold meaning, led him into many delusions, and e... Rome rose from her ruins, the bishop was discerned to be her most conspicuous man. Most opportunely, at this period Jerome had completed his Latin translation of the Bible. The Vulgate henceforth became the ecclesiastical authority of the West. The i...
91 (319)
On the question of the antipodes, St. Augustine asserts that "it is impossible there should be inhabitants on the opposite side of the earth, since no such race is recorded by Scripture among the descendants of Adam." The
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repudiated the improvement of man's physical state; to increase his power or comfort was to attempt to attain what Providence denied; philosophical investigation was an unlawful prying into things that God had designed to conceal.
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The temples were turned into tombs for the adoration of the bones of the basest and most depraved of men, who had suffered the penalty of the law, and whom they made their gods." Such was the end of the Serapion. Its destruction stands forth a token ...
94 (332)
They took Jerusalem by assault, and with it the cross of Christ; ninety thousand Christians were massacred; and in its very birthplace Christianity was displaced by Magianism.
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Like many of the Christian monks, Mohammed retired to the solitude of the desert, and, devoting himself to meditation, fasting, and prayer.
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"I," said his wife, "will be thy first believer," and they knelt down in
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The explanation of this political phenomenon is to be found in the social condition of the conquered countries. The influences of religion in them had long ago ceased; it had become supplanted by theology—a theology so incomprehensible that even the ...
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ecclesiastical chiefs of Rome, Constantinople, and Alexandria were engaged in a
99 (338)
became customary for the first dignities of the state to be held by men distinguished for their erudition. Some of the maxims current show how much literature was esteemed. "The ink of the doctor is equally valuable with the blood of the martyr." "Pa... of Cyprus, the sum paid to the khalif was only half of what it had been to the emperor; and, indeed, the lower orders were never made to feel the bitterness of conquest; the
100 (343)
Necessary disintegration of the Arabian system, consequence of the Arab system was subdivision and breaking up. The circumstances of its growth rendered it certain that a decomposition would take place in the political, and not, as was the case of th...
101 (345)
As years pass on, and human science becomes more exact and more comprehensive, its conclusions must be found in unison thermkith. When occasion arises, it should furnish us at least the foreshadowings of the great truths discovered by astronomy and g... infancy of man. It should tell us how suns and worlds are distributed in infinite space, and how, in their successions, they come forth in limitless time. It should say how far the dominion of God is carried out by law, and what is the point at which...
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347 5688: 201310160904@ the only criterion it can offer of its authenticity to succeeding times. Defects
103 (346)
Tried by such a standard, the Koran altogether fails. In its philosophy it is incomparably inferior to the writings of Chakia Mouni, the founder of Buddhism;
104 (346)
Deity are altogether anthropomorphic. He is only a gigantic man living in a paradise. In this respect, though exceptional passages might be cited, the reader rises from a perusal of the 114 chapters of the Koran with a final impression that they have... find no difficulty in asserting that, "from the crown of the head to the breast God is hollow, and from the breast downward he is solid; that he has curled black hair, and roars like a lion at every watch of the night." The
105 (347)
learned men who have held it in light esteem. Its most celebrated passages, as those on the nature of God, in Chapters II., XXIV., will bear no
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there is hardly a condition in which passages from the Koran cannot be recalled suitable for instruction, admonition, consolation, encouragement. To the Asiatic and to the African, such devotional fragments are of far more use than any sustained theo...
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To these, some of the more merciful Mussulmans add the wives they have had upon earth; but the grimly orthodox assert that hell is already nearly filled with women. How can it be otherwise since they are not permitted to pray in a mosque upon earth?
108 (351)
The loss of Africa and Asia was, in like manner, connected with the Arabian movement, though it would have been easy to prevent that catastrophe, and to preserve those continents to the faith by the smallest of those innumerable miracles of which Chu... meditate than on this loss of Africa and Asia. It may remove from his mind many erroneous ideas, and lead him to take a more elevated, a more philosophical, and, therefore, more correct view of the course of earthly affairs. CHAPTER
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"Ignorance is the mother of devotion,"
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He forbade the study of the classics, mutilated statues, and destroyed temples. He hated the very relics of classical genius; pursued with vindictive fanaticism the writings of Livy, against whom he was
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thus the Swedes,
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They reached the centre of France, but were beaten in the great battle of Tours by Franks, A.D. 732.
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375 6154: 201310160910@ hgl;transmuting of military reviews into theological assemblies.
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Pepin's brow, and anointed him, his
115 (374)
The second Council of Nicea had authorized image-worship, but the good sense of Charlemagne was superior to such idolatry. He openly expressed his disapproval, and even dictated a work against it—the Carolinian books. The pope was therefore placed in a singular dilemma, for not only had image-worship been restored at Constantinople, and the original cause of th...
116 (376)
Kopioitu leikepöydälle profitable sale of bones and relics, said to be those of saints but in reality obtained from the catacombs of Rome, had arisen. To the barbarian people of the north these gloomy objects proved more acceptable than images of wood, and the traffic, tho...
117 (377)
Though he never succeeded in learning howto write, no one appreciated better than Charlemagne the value of knowledge. He laboured assiduously for the elevation and enlightenment of his people.
118 (377)
Saracens, and their expulsion, there is nothing more than the most meagre annals; the clergy understood much better the use of the sword than that of the pen. The schools of Charlemagne proved a failure, not through any fault of his.
119 (378)
The private life of Charlemagne was stained with great immoralities and crimes. He indulged in a polygamy scarcely inferior to that of the khalifs, solacing himself with not less than nine wives and many concubines.
120 (380)
evil union of the Church and State, their rivalries, their intrigues, their quarrels, had produced an inevitable result, doing the same in the West that they had done in the East; disorganizing the political system. Social condition of Europe, and en...
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Whoever died without bequeathing a part of his property to the Church, died without confession and the sacraments, and forfeited Christian burial.
122 (386)
Human origin of the papacy. No one can study the development of the Italian ecclesiastical power without discovering how completely it depended on human agency, too often on human passion and intrigues; how completely wanting it was of any mark of the Divine construction and care—the offspring of man, not of God, and therefore bearing upon it the lineaments of human passions, human virtues, and human sins.
123 (391)
Who was to succeed to Archimedes, Hipparchus, Euclid, Herophilus, Eratosthenes? who to Plato and Aristotle? The quackeries of mirade-cure, shrine-cure, relic-cure, were destined to eclipse the genius of Hippocrates, and nearly two thousand years to ...
124 (392)
We have, however, only to consider the course of our own lives to be satisfied to how limited an extent such is the case. We are, as we often say, the creatures of circumstances. In that expression there is a higher philosophy than might at first sig... Nestorians who, in connexion with the Jews, founded the medical They begin to cultivate medicine.
125 (396)
Under the auspices of these learned men the Arabian academies were furnished with translations of Greek authors, and vast libraries were collected in Asia.
126 (398)
He believed that the innate heat of the body varies with the period of life, being greatest in infancy and least in old age, and that hence morbific agents affect us with greater or less facility at different times. For this reason it is that the phy...
127 (403)
Dogmatists, who asserted that diseases can only be treated correctly by the aid of a knowledge of the structure and functions, the action of drugs, and the changes induced in the affected parts; they insisted, therefore, upon the
128 (403)
Empirics, ridiculed such knowledge as fanciful or unattainable, and relied on experience alone. These subdivisions were not limited to sects; they may also be observed under the form of schools. Even Erasistratus himself, toward
129 (404)
Of the two great sects into which the Jewish nation had been divided, the Pharisees accepted the Assyrian doctrine; but the Sadducees, who denied the existence of any such spirit, boasted that theirs was the old Mosaic
130 (412)
Marcus Graecus, whose date is probably to be referred to the close of the eighth century, gives the composition explicitly. He directs us to pulverize in a marble mortar one pound of sulphur, two of charcoal, and six of saltpetre. If some of this
131 (413)
thus appears that firmkorks preceded fire-arms. To the same author we are indebted for prescriptions for making the skin incombustible, so that we may handle fire without being burnt. These, doubtless, were received as explanations of the legends of...
132 (415)
earthquake, or they are the effect of water, which, cutting for itself a new route, has
133 (416)
supernatural jugglery on the other; to show how the Arab system gained the
134 (429)
nearer man can approach to a state of total inaction the more will he resemble God.
135 (440)
The influence to which monasticism attained may be judged of from the boast of the Benedictines that "Pope John XXII., who died in 1334, after an exact inquiry, found that, since the first rise of the order, there had been of it 24 popes, near 200 ca... bishops, 15,000 abbots of renown, above 4000 saints, and upward of 37,000 monasteries. There have been likewise, of this order, 20 emperors and 10 empresses, 47 kings and above 50 queens, 20 sons of emperors, and 48 sons of kings; about 100 princesse...
136 (440)
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John William Draper: History of the Intellectual Development of Europe
1,7276,442,phi,eng,20131016,20131016,5,John William Draper: History of the Intellectual Development of Europe
20131016-20131016, 442 pages, 5* SalesInfo

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