P.M.S. Hacker: Wittgenstein on Human Nature

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1,867,56,phi,eng,20170702,20170702,4,P.M.S. Hacker: Wittgenstein on Human Nature
20170702-20170702, 56 pages, 4* SalesInfo

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3140001 I think you might like this book – "The Great Philosophers: Wittgenstein: Wittgenstein" by Peter Hacker.
3140002 Start reading it for free: http://a.co/8zqGm9T
3140004 Cover
3140005 Dedication
3140006 Title Page
1000601 Introduction
4000602 Wittgenstein’s Conception of Philosophy
12000603 Mind, Body and Behaviour: The Power of a Philosophical Illusion
18000604 Private Ownership of Experience
21000605 Epistemic Privacy
29000606 Descriptions and Expressions
37000607 The Inner and the Outer: Knowledge of Others
42000608 Minds, Bodies and Behaviour
49000609 Can Machines Think?
52000610 Notes
54000611 Abbreviations
55000612 About the Author

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1 (1)
Ludwig Wittgenstein was born in Vienna in 1889. He came to Britain to study aeronautical engineering at Manchester University in 1908.
2 (2)
After completing the Tractatus, Wittgenstein abandoned philosophy for a decade. In 1929
3 (2)
posthumous masterpiece: the Philosophical Investigations (1953). In it he presented a revolutionary conception of philosophy,
4 (3)
Wittgenstein’s philosophical psychology undermined the Cartesian, empiricist and behaviourist traditions.
5 (4)
The British empiricists, by contrast, thought of philosophy as an investigation into the origins of our ideas, the extent and nature of human knowledge.
6 (5)
It was characteristic of Wittgenstein not to take sides in pre-existing philosophical debates,
7 (5)
‘One keeps forgetting to go right down to the foundations,’ he wrote. ‘One doesn’t put the question marks deep enough down’ (CV 62).
8 (8)
Philosophical problems are symptoms of conceptual entanglement in the web of language.
9 (11)
Teaching philosophy involves the same immense difficulty as instructions in geography would have if the pupil brought with him a mass of false and falsely simplified ideas about the course and connections of rivers and mountains.
10 (12)
person is an embodied anima, for while the body is destructible, the mind or soul is not.
11 (13)
Is it not absurd to suppose that all statements about voluntary human action, such as promising, paying a bill, speaking or writing, are analysable into descriptions of mental acts of volition and of consequent bodily movements?
12 (14)
the mind stands to the brain as the software of a computer stands to its hardware
13 (14)
Consciousness is compared with a self-scanning mechanism in the brain;
14 (15)
The physical world is public, accessible to all by perception. The mental world is the world of subjective experience. It
15 (15)
the inner world are essentially private: ‘Nobody else has my pain.
16 (16)
Experiences are inalienable ‘private property’.
17 (17)
So one cannot have genuine knowledge of the inner life of others, as one does of one’s own.
18 (18)
You say that you don’t wish to apply the phrase, ‘he has got my pain’ or ‘we both have the same pain’, and instead, perhaps you will apply such a phrase as ‘his pain is exactly like mine’.
19 (19)
If two people both have a sharp throbbing pain in their left eye, then they have the same pain – neither qualitatively nor numerically the same, just the same – and may well be suffering from the same disease.
20 (21)
someone else logically cannot have the same experience, and cannot ‘peer into the mind’ of another person. But
21 (22)
Surely we are aware of our inner states, are conscious of them.
22 (26)
A self-conscious being is not a creature who is conscious of his aches and pains, but rather one who is aware of his motives, knows
23 (34)
Language – I want to say – is a refinement, “in the beginning was the deed”’ (CV 31).
24 (39)
Witnessing the suffering of another is not acquisition of indirect knowledge, and the sufferer does not have direct knowledge – what he has is pain, not knowledge.
25 (40)
A similar misconception attends the thought that what we hear when listening to another talking are mere sounds, which our brain then interprets as meaningful speech. Joy, distress or amusement are not hidden behind the face that manifests them, but visible on it.
26 (43)
A robot which responds to verbal instructions does not hear, and when it malfunctions it is not deaf. A computer does not become conscious when it is turned on, nor does it fall asleep when turned off.
27 (47)
the brain gains its knowledge by a process analogous to the inductive reasoning of the classical scientific method. Neurons present arguments to the brain based on the specific features they detect, arguments on which the brain constructs its hypothesis of perception.
28 (49)
Wittgenstein lived before the computer age. Nevertheless, he did reflect on these questions.
29 (50)
But does it not calculate? Not in the sense in which we do. The computer does not understand the results it types out, does not know what the symbols it displays mean, for it neither knows nor understands anything.

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P.M.S. Hacker: Wittgenstein on Human Nature
1,867,56,phi,eng,20170702,20170702,4,P.M.S. Hacker: Wittgenstein on Human Nature
20170702-20170702, 56 pages, 4* SalesInfo

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