Review will appear here, when reading is completed.
One of the best books ever|
5.0 out of 5 stars October 15, 2013
One of the best books ever
This review is from: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science (Kindle Edition)
When I first started reading this book, I thought that it must be somehow the latest word of science in this matter of religion. It seemed to be so balanced and void of passions, which usually are connected with these questions pertinent to every human being. But my astonishment was a bursting of a big balloon: the author John Draper lived in1811-1882 and was professor of chemistry! The background of science explains of course a great deal of the completely cool and neutral approach, even more than if he were a pure man of history or of religion.
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|9||0001||I. THE ORIGIN OF SCIENCE.|
|10||000101||EFFECTS OF DISCOVERY AND CRITICISM.|
|10||000102||THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.|
|11||000103||THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.|
|11||000104||THE INVASION OF PERSIA BY GREECE.|
|12||000105||THE MACEDONIAN CAMPAIGN.|
|13||000106||CONQUEST OF EGYPT.|
|13||000107||GREEK CONQUEST OF PERSIA.|
|14||000108||EVENTS OF THE CAMPAIGNS.|
|14||000109||EFFECT ON THE GREEK ARMY.|
|15||000110||EFFECTS ON THE GREEK ARMY.|
|15||000111||INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA.|
|16||000112||INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA.|
|16||000113||ITS RELIGIOUS CONDITION.|
|17||000114||DEATH OF ALEXANDER.|
|18||000115||FOUNDATION OF ALEXANDER.|
|19||000116||THE ALEXANDRIAN MUSEUM.|
|20||000117||ORGANIZATION OF THE MUSEUM.|
|21||000118||SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM.|
|21||000119||ETHICAL SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM.|
|22||000120||THE PRINCIPLES OF STOICISM.|
|22||000121||STOICISM IN THE MUSEUM.|
|23||000122||PLATONISM IN THE MUSEUM.|
|23||000123||PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN THE MUSEUM.|
|25||000126||THE SYNTAXIS OF PTOLEMY.|
|26||000127||INVENTION OF THE STEAM-ENGINE.|
|26||000128||POLICY OF THE PTOLEMIES.|
|27||000129||THE MUSEUM AND MODERN SCIENCE.|
|28||0002||THE ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY.--ITS TRANSFORMATION ON ATTAINING IMPERIAL POWER.--ITS RELATIONS TO SCIENCE.|
|28||000201||MONOTHEISM IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE.|
|29||000202||THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY|
|30||000203||IT GATHERS POLITICAL POWER.|
|30||000204||THE FIRST CHRISTIAN EMPEROR.|
|31||000205||TERTU WAN'S EXPOSITION OF CHRISTIANITY.|
|34||000206||PAGANIZATION OF CHRISTIANITY.|
|35||000207||CHRISTIANITY UNDER CONSTANTINE.|
|36||000208||INTRODUCTION OF ROMAN RITES.|
|37||000209||DEBASEMENT OF CHRISTIANITY.|
|38||000210||THE TRINITARIAN DISPUTE.|
|39||000211||THE MURDER OF HYPATIA.|
|40||000213||CONDEMNATION OF PELAGIUS.|
|42||000215||CRITICISM OF ST. AUGUSTINE.|
|44||000216||THE PATRISTIC PHILOSOPHY.|
|47||0003||CONFLICT RESPECTING THE DOCTRINE OF THE SOUTHERN REFORMATION.|
|48||000302||CONFLICT RESPECTING THE DOCTRINE OF THE UNITY OF GOD.--THE FIRST OR SOUTHERN REFORMATION.|
|49||000305||PERSECUTION AND DEATH OF NESTOR.|
|50||000306||THE PERSIAN CAMPAIGN.|
|51||000307||THE EXPEDITION OF HERACLIUS.|
|51||000308||INVASION OF CHOSROES.|
|54||000310||never to speak of Jesus as the Son of God, but always as "Jesus, the son of Mary."|
|55||000311||VICTORIES OF MOHAMMED.|
|55||000312||DEATH OF MOHAMMED.|
|56||000313||DOCTRINES OF MOHAMMED.|
|57||000314||THE FIRST KHAUF.|
|57||000315||THE MOHAMMEDAN HEAVEN.|
|58||000316||INVASION OF SYRIA.|
|58||000317||FALL OF BOZRAH.|
|59||000318||FALL OF DAMASCUS.|
|59||000319||FALL OF JERUSALEM.|
|61||000320||OVERTHROW OF THE PERSIANS.|
|61||000321||INVASION OF EGYPT.|
|62||000322||FALL OF ALEXANDRIA.|
|62||000323||FALL OF CARTHAGE.|
|63||000324||CONQUEST OF SPAIN.|
|64||000325||INVASION OF FRANCE.|
|64||000326||INSULT TO ROME.|
|65||000327||DISSENSIONS OF THE ARABS.|
|66||000328||POLITICAL EFFECT OF POLYGAMY.|
|66||000330||anthropomorphic religion. Its God was only a gigantic man, its heaven a mansion of carnal pleasures. From these imperfect ideas its more intelligent classes very soon freed themselves, substituting for them others more philosophical, more correct.|
|67||0004||IV. THE RESTORATION OF SCIENCE IN THE SOUTH.|
|67||000401||THE ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY BURNT.|
|68||000402||INFLUENCE OF THE NESTORIANS AND JEWS.|
|69||000403||FATALISM OF THE ARABIANS.|
|71||000404||2011081S0820 THEY MEASURE THE EARTH.|
|71||000405||THEIR PASSION FOR SCIENCE.|
|72||000407||THEY ORIGINATE CHEMISTRY.|
|6||000408||or by an instrumental observation.|
|73||000409||THEIR GREAT LIBRARIES.|
|74||000410||THE ARABIAN SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.|
|75||000412||AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURE.|
|77||0005||V. CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE SOUL.- DOCTRINE OF EMANATION AND ABSORPTION.|
|7||000502||many different opinions were held. Page 78 - hd3:ASIATIC PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWS.|
|78||000503||EMANATION AND ABSORPTION.|
|80||000504||9 ARABIC PSYCHOLOGY. Kopioitu leikepöydälle|
|89||000505||In the tenth century the Khalif Hakein II. had made beautiful Andalusia the paradise of the world. Christians, Mussulmen, Jews, mixed together without restraint.|
|95||0006||VI. CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE WORLD.|
|112||0007||VII. CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE AGE OF THE EARTH.|
|123||0008||VIII. CONFLICT RESPECTING THE CRITERION OF TRUTH.|
|123||000801||"WHAT is truth?"|
|137||0009||IX. CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSE.|
|153||0010||X. LATIN CHRISTIANITY IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.|
|153||001001||LATIN Christianity Kopioitu leikepöydälle|
|165||001002||NEED OF A GENERAL COUNCIL.|
|167||001003||CATHOLICITY AND CIVILIZATION.|
|170||0011||XI. SCIENCE IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.|
|170||001101||THE INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE.-It|
|170||001102||THE INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SQENCE.-It|
|170||001103||THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE|
|170||001105||SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION.|
|171||001106||KNOWLEDGE IS POWER.|
|172||001107||ILLUSTRATIONS FROM AMERICAN HISTORY.|
|172||001108||QUARREL BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE PAPACY.|
|172||001109||INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE.|
|173||001110||MOORISH SCIENCE INTRODUCED THROUGH FRANCE.|
|173||001111||EFFECT OF THE GREAT SCHISM.|
|174||001112||INVENTION OF PRINTING.|
|174||001113||EFFECTS OF MARITIME ENTERPRISE.|
|176||001116||DECOMPOSITION OF PROTESTANTISM.|
|178||001119||ITALIAN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES.|
|178||001120||INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.|
|179||001121||THEORIES OF GRAVITATION AND PHLOGISTON.|
|179||001122||SCIENCE AND ECCLESIASTICISM.|
|182||001124||THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.|
|184||001125||INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.|
|184||001126||THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCES OF SGENCE.|
|189||001132||MAGIC AND MIRACLES.|
|189||001133||DISCOVERIES IN ASTRONOMY AND CHEMISTRY.|
|190||001134||INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES.|
|192||001135||AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS.|
|192||001136||SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION.|
|194||0012||XII. THE IMPENDING CRISIS.|
|194||001201||PREDOMINANCE OF CATHOLICITY.|
|195||001202||Page 195 - THE OECUMENICAL COUNCIL|
|196||001203||EXPECTATIONS OF THE PAPACY.|
|197||0013||ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS.|
|197||001301||ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS.|
|198||001302||CONVOCATION OF THE COUNCIL.|
|198||001303||THE VATICAN COUNCIL.|
|199||001304||INFALLIBILITY OF THE POPE.|
|200||001305||THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT.|
|200||001306||AFFAIRS IN PRUSSIA.|
|201||001307||ACTION OF THE PRUSSIAN GOVERNMENT.|
|201||001308||THE CHURCH A POLITICAL POWER.|
|202||001309||DUAL GOVERNMENT IN EUROPE.|
|203||001310||INTENTIONS OF THE POPE.|
|204||001312||CONSTITUTION OF CATHOLIC FAITH.|
|205||001313||"OF GOD, THE CREATOR OF ALL THINGS.|
|206||001316||THE VATICAN ANATHEMAS.|
|208||001317||THE EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE.|
|209||001318||THE VATICAN CONSTITUTION CRITICISED.|
|211||001319||THE PASSAGE OF EUROPE TO LLAMAISM.|
|212||001320||THE ERRORS OF ECCLESIASTICISM.|
|213||001321||SEPARATION OF CATHOLICISM AND CIVILIZATION.|
|214||001322||SCIENCE AND PROTESTANTISM.|
|214||001323||SCIENCE AND FAITH.|
|215||001324||CIVILIZATION AND RELIGION.|
|216||001325||INADMISSIBLE CLAIMS OF CATHOLICISM.|
|216||001326||ISSUE OF THE CONFLICT.|
History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science
John William Draper
The history of Science is not a mere record of isolated discoveries; it is a narrative of the conflict of two contending powers, the expansive force of the human intellect on one side, and the compression arising from traditionary faith and human int...
In selecting and arranging the topics now to be presented, I have been guided in part by "the Confession" of the late Vatican Council, and in part by the order of events in history.
What is God? What is the soul? What is the world? How is it governed? Have we any standard or criterion of truth?
Evolution, Creation, Development.
An examination of what Latin Christianity has done for modern civilization. A corresponding examination of what Science has done.
JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, December, 1878.
they not only denied the unseen, the supernatural, they even affirmed that the world is only a day-dream, a phantasm, and that nothing at all exists.
They were ever ready to barter patriotic considerations for foreign gold,
Persian coin, the Daric, which was stamped with the image of an archer.
B.C. 334 Alexander crossed the Hellespont into Asia. His army consisted of thirty-four thousand foot and four thousand horse.
Persian loss was not less than ninety thousand foot and ten thousand horse.
the military talent they fostered led to the establishment of the mathematical and practical schools of Alexandria, the true origin of science.
his fleet should attempt the circumnavigation of Africa, and come into the Mediterranean through the Pillars of Hercules--a feat which, it was affirmed, had once been accomplished by the Pharaohs.
Babylonians had fixed the length of a tropical year within twenty-five seconds of the truth; their estimate of the sidereal year was barely two minutes in excess. They had detected the precession of the equinoxes.
Not without interest do we still look on specimens of their method of printing. Upon a revolving roller they engraved, in cuneiform letters, their records, and, running this over plastic clay formed into blocks, produced ineffaceable proofs. From the...
It is the duty of a good man to cultivate truth, purity, and industry.
Alexander died at Babylon before he had completed his thirty-third year (B.C. 323). There was a suspicion that he had been poisoned.
Philadelphian library, and were crowded with the choicest statues and pictures. This library eventually comprised four hundred thousand volumes.
In the establishment of the Museum, Ptolemy Soter and his son Philadelphus had three objects in view: 1. The perpetuation of such knowledge as was then in the world; 2. Its increase; 3. Its diffusion.
though there is a Supreme Power, there is no Supreme Being. There is an invisible principle, but not a personal God, to whom it would be not so much blasphemy as absurdity to impute the form. the sentiments, the passions of man.
unrepining submission to whatever befalls us, a life led in accordance with reason?
Plato, therefore, trusted to the imagination, Aristotle to reason.
The philosophy of Plato is a gorgeous castle in the air; that of Aristotle a solid structure, laboriously,
the only observation which the history of astronomy offers us, made by the Greeks before the school of Alexandria, is that of the summer solstice of the year B.C. 432. by Meton and Euctemon.
Ptolemy, the author of the great work, "Syntaxis," "a Treatise on the Mathematical Construction displaced by the immortal "Principia" of Newton.
The traditions of the Heavens." It maintained its ground for nearly fifteen hundred years, and indeed was only recognized that within this world of transient delusions and unrealities there is a world of eternal truth.
It is to be discovered by the investigations of geometry, and by the practical interrogation of Nature.
The day will never come when any one of the propositions of Euclid will be
The Museum of Alexandria was thus the birthplace of modern science.
Considering the connection which in all ages has existed between political and religious ideas, it was then not at all strange that polytheism should manifest a tendency to pass into monotheism.
The widows and orphans of the community were thus supported, the poor and the sick sustained. From this germ was developed a new, and as the events proved, all-powerful society-the Church;
Its propagation was hastened by missionaries who made it known in all directions. None of the ancient classical philosophies had ever taken advantage of such a means.
it began to exhibit political tendencies, a disposition to form a government within the government, an empire within the empire.
"The books of Moses, in which God has inclosed, as in a treasure, all the religion of the Jews, and consequently all the Christian religion, reach far beyond the oldest you have, even beyond all your public monuments, the establishment of your state,...
The divinity of these Scriptures is proved by this, that all that is done in our days may be found predicted in them; they contain all that has since passed in the view of men.
These Holy Scriptures teach us that there is one God, who made the world out of nothing,
The prophets of those old times were Jews; they addressed their oracles, for such they were, to the Jews, who have stored them up in the Scriptures.
The honor we bear to Christ does not derogate from the honor we bear to God.
Tertullian renews an assertion which, carried into practice, as it subsequently was, affected the intellectual development of all Europe. He declares that the Holy Scriptures are a treasure from which all the true wisdom in the world has been drawn;
Two arguments were relied on for the authenticity of these objects--the authority of the Church, and the working of miracles.
Though there were several abbeys that possessed this last peerless relic, no one dared to say that it was impossible they could all be authentic.
Nay, the very same temples, the very same images, which were once consecrated to Jupiter and the other demons, are now consecrated to the Virgin Mary and the other saints.
sacred and profane knowledge;
Paganism leaned for support on the learning of its philosophers, Christianity on the inspiration of its Fathers
Arius, a disappointed candidate for the office of bishop. He took the ground that there was a time when, from the very nature of sonship, the Son did not exist, and a time at which he commenced to be, asserting that it is the necessary condition of t...
"The Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes those who say that there was a time when the Son of God was not, and that, before he was begotten, he was not, and that he was made out of nothing, or out of another substance or essence, and is c...
"What am I? Where am I? What can I know?"
The face of creation testifies that there has been a Creator; but at once arises the question, "How and when did he make heaven and earth? They could not have been made IN heaven and earth, the world could not have been made IN the world, nor
I say that, before God made heaven and earth, he did not make any thing, for no creature could be made before any creature was made. Time itself is a creature, and hence it could not possibly exist before
cultivation of science was restored, and
If, satisfied with this picture of happiness, illiterate persons never inquired how the details of such a heaven were carried out, or how much pleasure there could be in the ennui of such an eternally unchanging, unmoving scene, it was not so with th...
Cyril was determined that the worship of the Virgin as the Mother of God should be recognized, Nestor was determined that it should not.
the Virgin should be considered not as the Mother of God, but as the mother of the human portion of Christ,
Nestorians, as we have seen, denied that God had "a mother." Kopioitu leikepöydälle
In a nocturnal dream he was carried by Gabriel from Mecca to Jerusalem, and thence in succession through the six heavens. Into the seventh the angel feared to intrude and Mohammed alone passed into the dread cloud that forever enshrouds the Almighty....
Afterward, with Oriental eloquence, he said, "Paradise will be found in the shadow of the crossing of swords."
the doctrine he proclaimed, that "there is but one God," was universally adopted by his countrymen, and his own apostleship accepted
He absolutely rejects the Trinity, of which he seems to have entertained the idea that it could not be interpreted otherwise than as presenting three distinct Gods.
The God of the Koran is altogether human, both corporeally and mentally, if such expressions may with propriety be used. kindle
PAbubeker, the father of Ayesha, was selected. He was proclaimed the first khalif, or successor of the Prophet.
"History of the Intellectual Development of Europe."
And I deny him that was crucified, and whosoever worships him. And I choose God for my Lord, Islam for my faith, Mecca for my temple, the Moslems for my brethren, Mohammed for my prophet, who was sent to lead us in the right way, and to exalt the tru...
A nation may recover the confiscation of its provinces, the confiscation of its wealth; it may survive the imposition of enormous
The attributes of God cannot be determined from the attributes of man. His sovereignty and government can neither be compared nor measured."
According to the Koran, the earth is a square plane, edged with vast mountains, which serve the double purpose of balancing it in its seat, and of sustaining the dome of the sky.
having become acquainted with the globular form of the earth, gave orders to his mathematicians and astronomers to measure a degree of a great circle upon it.
division of the Saracen Empire by internal dissensions into three parts. The Abasside dynasty in Asia, the Fatimite in Egypt, and the Ommiade in Spain,
Ben Musa furnished the solution of quadratic equations, Omar Ben Ibra him that of cubic equations.
The Arabian astronomers also devoted themselves to the construction and perfection of astronomical instruments, to the measurement of time by clocks of various kinds, by clepsydras and sundials. They were the first to introduce, for this purpose, th...
corrected the Greek misconception, that a ray proceeds from the eye, and touches the object seen, introducing the hypothesis that the ray passes from the object to the eye.
when they speak of man, and attribute to him a completeness and equilibrium in nature and constitution--not that man was once a bull, and was changed into an ass, and afterward into a horse, and after that into an ape, and finally became a man."
THE pagan Greeks and Romans believed that the spirit of man resembles his bodily form, varying its appearance with his variations, and growing with his growth.
Vedaism developed itself into Buddhism, which has become the faith of a
Nirwana is reached, oblivion is attained, a state that has no relation to matter, space, or time.
9 from the Father the Son emanates, and thence the Holy Ghost.
2011081S08S0 Averroism is philosophical Islamism.
Erigena thus conceives of the Deity as an unceasing participator in Nature, being its preserver, maintainer, upholder, and in that respect answering to the soul of the world of the Greeks.
In that final absorption which, after a lapse of time, must necessarily come, God will be all in all, and nothing exist but him alone."
There is a fourfold conception of universal Nature-two views of divine Nature, as origin and end; two also of framed Nature, causes and effects. There is nothing eternal but God."
there is no necessity of your perishing, on account of the perishing of your body.
In a stone the material particles are in a state of stable equilibrium; it may, therefore, endure forever. An animal is in reality only a form through which a stream of matter is incessantly flowing.
Where would human physiology be, if it were not illuminated by the bright irradiations of comparative physiology?
Many domestic animals have reasoning powers, and employ proper means for the attainment of ends. How
"If you will watch a single ant at work, you can tell what he will next do!" He is considering the matter, and reasoning as you are doing.
"from bees, and wasps, and ants, and birds, from all that low animal life on which he looks with supercilious contempt, man is destined one day to learn what in truth he really is."
There is no such thing as a spontaneous, or self- originated, thought. Every intellectual act is the consequence of some preceding act. It comes into existence in
Kopioitu leikepöydälle Two fundamental ideas are essentially attached to all our perceptions of external things: they are SPACE and TIME,
The eye is the organ of space, the ear of time; the perceptions of which by the elaborate
During a third part of our life, in sleep, we are withdrawn from external influences; hearing and sight and the other senses are inactive,but the never-sleeping Mind, that pensive, that veiled enchantress, in her mysterious retirement, looks over the...
the knowledge of one person could be transmitted to another by conversation. The acts and thoughts of one generation could be imparted to another, and influence its acts and thoughts.
Kopioitu leikepöydälle The invention of the art of writing gave extension and durability to the registration or record of impressions.
The universal, or active, or objective intellect, is uncreated, impassible, incorruptible, has neither beginning nor end; nor does it increase as the number of individual souls increases.
This oneness of the active intellect, or reason, is the essential principle of the Averroistic theory, and is in harmony with the cardinal doctrine of Mohammedanism-the unity of God.
Philosophy has never proposed but two hypotheses to explain the system of the world: first, a personal God existing apart, and a human soul called into existence or created, and thenceforth immortal; second, an impersonal intelligence, or indetermina...
Averroes in this his blasphemous doctrine denies creation,
Until Innocent IV. (1243), there was no special tribunal against heretics, distinct from those of the bishops.
On March 30, 1492, the edict of expulsion was signed. All unbaptized Jews, of whatever age, sex, or condition, were ordered to leave the realm by the end of the following July.
Averroes was not their inventor, be merely gave them clearness and expression. Among the Jews of the thirteenth century, he had completely supplanted his imputed master. Aristotle had passed away from their eyes; his great commentator, Averroes, stoo...
An attempt was made at the Council of Vienne to have his writings absolutely suppressed, and to f(
Forbid all Christians reading them. So accurate were they in their observations, that the ablest modern mathematicians have made use of their results. Thus Laplace, in his "Systeme du Monde," adduces the observations of Al-Batagni as affording incontestable proof of the diminution of t...
the question of the shape of the earth was finally settled by three sailors, Columbus, De Gama, and, above all, by Ferdinand Magellan.
without breaking bulk.
command of Magellan, an expedition of five ships, carrying two hundred and thirty- seven men, was dispatched from Seville, August 10, 1519.
September 7, 1522, after a voyage of more than three years, he brought his ship, the San Vittoria, to anchor in the port of St. Lucar, near Seville. She had accomplished the greatest achievement in the history of the human race. She had circumnavigat...
Henceforth the theological doctrine of the flatness of the earth was irretrievably overthrown.
To settle this, the French Government, aided by the Academy, sent out two expeditions to measure degrees of the meridian--one under the equator, the other as far north as possible; the former went to Peru, the latter to Swedish Lapland.
he succeeded in making one that, could magnify thirty times.
January 7,1610, he perceived three small stars in a straight line, adjacent to the planet Jupiter, and, a few evenings later, a fourth.
presented a miniature representation of the Copernican system.
must surely have been some other motive than that of illuminating the nights for him.
Galileo was accused of imposture, heresy, blasphemy, atheism. With a view of defending himself, he addressed a letter to the Abbe Castelli, suggesting that the Scriptures were never intended to be a scientific authority, but only a moral guide.
Knowing well that Truth has no need of martyrs, be assented to the required recantation, and gave the promise demanded. kindle
But in 1632 Galileo ventured on the publication of his work entitled "The System of the World,"
The opinions thus defended by the Inquisition are now objects of derision to the whole civilized world.
therefore be admitted that the distance of the earth from the sun is somewhat less than ninety-two million miles.
The parallax of a star is the angle contained between two lines drawn from it-one to the sun, the other to the earth.
Worlds are scattered like dust in the abysses in space.
Does not their enormous size demonstrate that, as they are centres of force, so they must be centres of motion-- suns for other systems of worlds?
His meditations on these subjects had brought him to the conclusion that the views of Averroes are not far from the truth-that there is an Intellect which animates the universe.
Averroes and Spinoza. The latter held that God and the Universe are the same,
Inquisition, accused not only of being a heretic, but also a heresiarch, who had written things unseemly concerning religion;
"Perhaps it is with greater fear that you pass the sentence upon me than I receive it." The sentence was carried into effect, and he was burnt at Rome, February 16th, A.D. 1600.
strong suspicions of heresy, since he has said that there are other worlds than ours.
there were not less than one hundred and thirty-two different opinions as to the year in which the Messiah appeared,
German Reformation assumed a political organization at Smalcalde.
In 1559, Pope Paul IV. instituted the Congregation of the Index Expurgatorius. "Its duty is to examine books and manuscripts intended for publication, and to decide whether the people may be permitted to read them; to correct those books of which the...
raising a theological odium against an offender, to put him under a social ban-a course perhaps not less effectual than the other.
In all countries the political power of the Church had greatly declined; her leading men perceived that the cloudy foundation on which she had stood was dissolving away. Repressive measures against her antagonists, in old times resorted to with effec...
Leibnitz affirmed, in the face of Europe, that "Newton had robbed the Deity of some of his most excellent attributes, and had sapped the foundation of natural religion.”
From the time of Newton to our own time, the divergence of science from the dogmas of the Church has continually increased. The
Many good and well-meaning men have attempted to reconcile the statements of Genesis with the discoveries of science, but it is in vain. The divergence has increased so much, that it has become an absolute opposition. One of the antagonists must give...
the whole Pentateuch is unhistoric and non-Mosaic; it contains the most extraordinary contradictions and impossibilities, sufficient to involve the credibility of the whole-imperfections so many and so conspicuous that they would
discovery that the Pentateuch is put together out of various sources, or original documents, is beyond all doubt not only one of the most important and most pregnant with consequences for the interpretation of the historical books of the Old Testamen...
It is to be regretted that the Christian Church has burdened itself with the defense offl Kopioitu leikepöydälle made itself answerable for their manifest contradictions and errors.
Still more, it is to be deeply regretted that the Pentateuch, a production so imperfect as to be unable to stand the touch of modern criticism, should be put forth as the arbiter of
the Catholic has, in our own times, declared the infallibility of the pope.
There are many who affirm that, if infallibility exists anywhere, it is in oecumenical councils, and yet such councils have not always agreed with each other.
Kopioitu leikepöydälle What proof can be given that infallibility exists in the Church at all? what proof is there that the Church has ever been fairly or justly represented in any council?
third law, defining the relation between the mean distances of the planets from the sun and the times of their revolutions; "the squares of the periodic times are proportional to the cubes of the distances."
Index, therefore, when they denounced the Copernican system as utterly contrary to the Holy Scriptures, prohibited Kepler's "Epitome" of that system. At first he inclined to believe that the orbit of Mars is oval, nor was it until after a wearisome study that he detected the grand truth, its elliptical form.
In some most important particulars Kepler anticipated Newton. He was the first to give clear ideas respecting gravity.
The progress of astronomy is obviously divisible into three periods: 1. The period of observation of the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies. 2. The period of discovery of their real motions, and particularly of the laws of the planetary revoluti...
Leonardo da Vinci, who was born A.D. 1452. To him, and not to Lord Bacon, must be attributed the renaissance of science.
To ascribe the inductive method to him is to ignore history. His fanciful philosophical suggestions have never been of the
In the latter half of the seventeenth century, through the works of Borelli, Hooke, and Huyghens, it had become plain that circular motions could be accounted for by the laws of Galileo.
On the principle that all bodies attract each other with forces directly as their masses, and inversely as the squares of their distances, Newton showed that all the movements of the celestial bodies may be accounted for, and that Kepler’s laws might...
It was proved that the moon is retained in her orbit and made to revolve round the earth by the force of terrestrial gravity.
double stars-*double not merely because they are accidentally in the same line of view, but because they are connected physically, revolving round each other.
Is there for each of us a providential intervention as we thus pass from stage to stage of life?
Until the beginning of the ninth century, there was no change in the constitution of the Roman Church.
Up to the end of the twelfth century, the popes were the vicars of Peter; after Innocent III. they were the vicars of Christ.
chief object of ecclesiastical policy was the aggrandizement of the Church, not the promotion of civilization.
There were some preliminary skirmishes about indulgences and other minor matters, but very soon the real cause of dispute came plainly into view. Martin Luther refused to think as he was ordered to do by his ecclesiastical superiors at Rome; he asser...
vulgar saying among the Roman ecclesiastics that Erasmus laid the egg of the Reformation, and Luther hatched it.
taught them that there was a higher power than the popes. The long and bloody wars that ensued were closed by the Peace of Westphalia; and then it was found that Central and Northern Europe had cast off the intellectual tyranny of Rome, that individu...
History teaches us only too plainly that fanaticism is stimulated by religion, and neutralized or eradicated by philosophy.
Leonardo da Vinci, who proclaimed the fundamental principle that experiment and of interpreter of Nature, and is essential to the ascertainmen... foundations of reasoning in science, that experiment is the only trustworthy
The influence of science on modern civilization has been twofold: 1. Intellectual; 2. Economical.
Royal Society of London, illustrate the position it took in this respect. It rejected the supernatural and miraculous as evidence in physical discussions.
Authority and tradition pass for nothing. Every thing is settled by an appeal to Nature ers she gives to a practical interrogation will ever be true.
To the Arabians we owe our knowledge of the rudiments of algebra; we owe to them the very name under which this branch of mathematics passes.
In 1496 Paccioli published his book entitled "Arte Maggiore," or "Alghebra." In 1501, Cardan, of Milan, gave a method for the solution of cubic equations; other improvements were contributed by Scipio Ferreo, 1508, by Tartalea, by Vieta. The Germans ...
Napier died in 1617. It is no exaggeration to say that this invention, by shortening the labors, doubled the life of the astronomer.
When the Royal Society of London was founded, theological odium was directed against it with so much rancor that, doubtless, it would have been extinguished, had not King Charles II. given it his open and avowed support. It was accused of an intentio...
application of a new principle, or the invention of a new machine, was better than the acquisition of an additional slave,
Chance had nothing to do with the invention of the modern steam-engine. It was the product of meditation and experiment.
St. Polycarp significantly remarked, "In all these monstrous demons is seen an art ho
1680 did the chronometer begin to approach accuracy.
To the invention of the chronometer must be added that of the reflecting sextant by Godfrey. This permitted astronomical observations to be made, notwithstanding the motion of a ship.
The different kinds of insurance were adopted, though strenuously resisted by the clergy. They opposed fire and marine insurance, on the ground that it is a tempting of Providence. Life insurance was regarded as an act of interference with the conseq...
The maxims that have been followed in the earlier and the later period produced their inevitable result. In the former that maxim was, "Ignorance is the mother of Devotion in the latter, "Knowledge is Power."
principle is that all power is in the clergy, and that for laymen there is only the privilege of obedience.
Church asserts that the divine commission under which it acts comprises civil government; that it has a right to use the state for its own purposes, but that the state has no right to intermeddle with it;
Unembarrassed by any hesitating sentiment, the papacy has contemplated the coming intellectual crisis. It has pronounced its decision, and occupied what seems to it to be the most advantageous ground.
It is plainly impossible for men to live under two governments, one of which declares to be wrong what the other commands.
that the Church alone has a right to fix the limits between its domain and that of the state--a dangerous and inadmissible
wishes to be the leader of Europe, on the other she clings to a dead past. For
In America the temporal
God willed to join miracles and Catholic Apostolic Roman the one we know by natural reason, in the other by divine faith;
Widif: "God forceth not a man to believe that which he cannot understand."
One of the most striking and vet contradictory features of the Dogmatic
doctrines of Evolution and Development, bluntly insisting that the Church believes in distinct creative acts. The doctrine that
Gregory XVI. denounced freedom of conscience as an insane
Then has it in truth come to this, that Roman Christianity and Science are recognized by their respective adherents as being absolutely incompatible; they cannot exist together; one must yield to the other; mankind must make its choice--it cannot hav...
Faith must render an account of herself to Reason. Mysteries must give place to facts.
There must be absolute freedom for thought. The ecclesiastic must learn to keep himself within the domain he has chosen, and cease to tyrannize over the philosopher, who, conscious of his own strength and the purity of his motives, will bear such interference no longer. What
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