Yuri Pompeev
History and philosophy of entrepreneurship in Russia

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Chapter 1. Definition of basic concepts. Ideology and essence of entrepreneuship
Chapter 2. Entrepreneurship in the princely era of ancient Russia
Chapter 3. Entrepreneurship in 17th century
Chapter 4. Entrepreneurship in Peter's era
Chapter 5. Entrepreneursip in Cathrine's era
Chapter 6. Entrepreneurship in the 19th century
Chapter 7. The essence of business today
Chapter 8. Russian idea in the development of civilization
ANNEXES

1. The author of the present work "History and philosophy entrepreneurship in Russia" is Professor, Doctor of Cultural Studies and Russian writer Yuri Pompeev. This book is, in our view, a real masterpiece, and can justly take place in the Russian historiography next to the volumes of "History of the Russian State" by N.M. Karamzin (1766-1826) and Complete lectures on the Russian history by academician S.F. Platonov (1860-1933). Y.A. Pompeev is particularly concentrating on entertaining scenes of everyday life of the people in Russian history. The rich experience of human management in harsh environmental conditions creates enterprise and lays the foundations for the formation and development of commercial, industrial and banking business in Russia of IX - XX centuries. 00000001


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Chapter 1.
Definition of basic concepts. Ideology and essence of entrepreneuship


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Stages of economic and cultural development of humanity

0102 Historical destiny of the peoples of Russia
0103 Taxation
0104 Entrepreneurship as a kind of human activity
0105 Overview of the development of modern business principles and values
0106 Communitional psychology, Orthodoxy and entrepreneurship
0107 Significance of cities for the development of entrepreneurship in Europe and in Russia
02 Next chapter

1. In culture (lat. cultura - cultivation, elaboration, care, upbringing, education, development, reverence) distinction is done between material objects, being result of productive labor, but also spiritual side (religion, knowledge) and behavior (working habits, customs, rituals). History in this sense is nothing but activities of man pursuing his aims. The first attempts to understand the economic development as different forms and stages following each-others (gathering and hunting, ranching, farming) belong to antiquity. Agriculture ancient Greeks based on arable lands and craft. Known is the disdain for these occupations. "You cannot lead the life of an artisan and at the same time improve in virtue" - Aristotle believed. Neighbors of the Scythians, breeding horses being partially involved in grain farming, the Greeks considered barbarians. Hunters and gatherers of gifts of far northern forests are placed in the lowest stage of development, called savagery. 01010001

2. The Romans were farmers - conquerors. Work, in their minds, with the first calends was destiny and heritage of slaves and prisoners who had no history. Society of the Roman Empire was divided into unprecedentedly rich manufacturers that used in the production of manual labor mercenaries, slaves and freemen, who lived at public expense. The reason for the fall of the Roman Empire was the economic and moral exhaustion. 01010002

3. Mighty revolution in the sphere of economic relations, as well as in other areas, made ​​Christianity, sanctifying work in general, and proclaiming the equality of all before God. As the purpose of life Christ established moral perfection. In general, the ideals of the New Testament meet the most fundamental needs of human nature, and therefore strongly and deeply acted and continue to act on people. Religious belief is the most free of human beliefs. At the same time religion is an inexhaustible source of consolation in human suffering and the highest ideal of good spots in the abnegation of all desires. 01010003

4. American historian and ethnographer LG Morgan (1818-1881) proved the first position on the development of ownership from collective to private and identified the following milestones of economic and cultural development of mankind:

  • period of finished products obtained directly from natural sources (wildness);
  • period of the birth of the producing economy, the introduction of animal husbandry and agriculture, time of mastering methods of increasing the production of nature through human activity (barbarism);
  • period mastering further processing of natural products, the development of industry and art, world information system (civilization).
  • 01010004

    5. To three periods - savagery, barbarism and civilization in the history of the world economy divided also the Scottish philosopher A. Ferguson (1723-1816). Transition from savagery to barbarism, has been linked to the emergence of agriculture and animal husbandry, and the introduction of private property. 01010008

    6. German economist Liszt (1789-1846) on the basis of social division of labor identifies five stages in the development of economic life: wildness; pastoralism; farming, agriculture and handicrafts; agriculture, crafts and trade. 01010009

    7. At the end of the XIX century socio-economic thought, reflecting the socio-cultural foundations of the economy and business, a three-stage scheme comprised development of the world economy (K. Bücher), comprising: a closed household, urban agriculture, national economy. To this scheme an American ethnographer P. Buchanan added the stage, based on industry and factory and the resources of the world's infrastructure. 01010010

    8. The desire to express a huge amount of factual material, characterizing economic and cultural diversity of the peoples of the world economy in general forms of land led to the development of certain criteria. Thus, the German geographer E. Hahn (1892) adopted such criteria and used the division: a) the basic tools and techniques on the ground, b) the size and shape of fields, c) the division of labor by sex and age, d) the connection with cultivation of traditional rituals, e) the global transport system. 01010011

    1. Forms of world economy (Map E. Hahn, Eastern hemisphere)
    1. hunting and fishing
    2. hand-powered agriculture
    3. plantative agriculture
    4. plow driven agriculture
    5. cattle breeding
    6. horticulture and garden economy
    7. hand-powered agriculture and cattle-breeding
    8. hunting, fishing, reindeer herding
    9. cattle-breeding, hunting and fishing
    10. areas without agriculture

    9. Hahn shows on the map the following types and forms of farms: hunting and fishing, hand-powered agriculture, plow and plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, horticulture, hand-powered agriculture with cattle breeding, hunting and fishing with reindeer herding, cattle with hunting and fishing and industries for the development of non-agricultural areas. Western European and Slavic peoples' territories Kahn includes to plow-using agriculture. 01010014

    10. In intergeneric and intertribal warfare (we and they) has been formed the personality (I), independent from the team developing his agility, initiative, creativity, finding ways to assert himself, consolidating the fact of being right. Every business day, and year demanded more and more individual exertion, intellectual energy in the development of industry and trade. History has preserved brilliant characters and personalities: Prometheus, Hercules, Svyatogor, Ilya Muromets, Mikula Selyaninovich and hundreds of other giant phenomenal appearances of national experience during centuries 01010015

    11. From the beginnings of the civilization man and citizen have indicated awareness of their rights and duties in the economic life, due to the separation of crafts from agriculture, the development of metallurgy, with the deepening geographic and social division of labor, trade, with the emergence of private property, free enterprise and government. 01010016

    12. Private property as self-defense against poverty has gradually led to increasing contradictions between people. Owners have engaged protection of their personal interests, gaining autonomy and losing dependence on the tribe and the state. Hunger, poverty, adversity, geography taught people to sea-faring and merchant trade. 01010017

    13. Turning to ancient civilizations, you may recognize that the Greeks were above all inspired of military glory and love for Hellas, Roman legions inspired of mined gold, Arabians raised by their bigotry, the ancient Mongols craved blood, Normans were ignited by the spirit of bravades and robbery. Ancient Slavs, our ancestors were fighting for independence and peacefully colonized wasteland, did not notice how elected princes with hired militia turned into military and police force, and the battle for border security escalated into war for joining more and more new lands and peoples. 01010018


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    Historical destiny of the peoples of Russia

    0103 Taxation
    0104 Entrepreneurship as a kind of human activity
    0105 Overview of the development of modern business principles and values
    0106 Communitional psychology, Orthodoxy and entrepreneurship
    0107 Significance of cities for the development of entrepreneurship in Europe and in Russia
    02 Next chapter

    1. The imperial policy of the authorities was under construction on acquired from Varangians and become congenital tendency of combatants - their habit to campaigns and the robberies, alien to indigenous people of these lands since the time of still Scythian plowmen. 01020001

    2. Vessel of Russian seafarers

    2. But the same Novgorodians in the IX century were engaged in sea robbery and trade with the western Slavs and Germans. Calling of Varangians in 862 was caused, of course, by early acquaintance of Novgorodians to those areas. Predatory activity concerned also actually Russian lands about what chroniclers mention as national disasters. In the similar way Novgorodians subordinated to themselves and collected a tribute a robbery of various Finno-Ugric tribes occupying spaces to the East from Novgorod to the Ural Mountains. Tribute of Russia, according to data Acad. S.G. Strumilin, such tribes, as Chudes, Mairies, Vesis, Muroms, Cheremises, Mordvans, Perm, Pechora, Yams, Lithuanians, zimigola, kors, norova, lib [81; 456-457]. 01020003

    3. The spirit of enterprise was primordial property of our northern tribes, and trade since the time of Homer was semi-industrial, semi-military, semi-predatory activity. The balance of forces buyer-seller determined the action - to descend and rob or trade? Residents of coastal communities decided according to economic standpoints. 01020004

    4. Russians were participants of great historical upheavals of European and Asian medieval times, in the terminology of modern writer, they conquered one sixth of the world's dry surface, harsh space with hard work after glaciation. Unclear in the history of the country is the question: why they moved to the North across the ancient Aryan tribes through the fertile land, not yet being snapped up by someone else with more favorable destiny? Why did our ancestors decide to settle down and grow roots unbroken in thin fibers from areas settled by godless Finno-Ugric tribes to the Pacific Ocean, in so intolerable and economically unattractive conditions, in which not to this day dwelled any numerous people having historical extent, fame or culture? 01020005

    5. And the conclusion is that without supernatural Will, guiding hand, Divine Veil, but only on their efforts on whims Russian tribes would have been destroyed by the great wild space or sunk down to primitive, cave living level. 01020006

    6. Of course, the colonization of the northern and some other parts of our land is not a mystery to those skilled in the country's history. The desire of the Russian peasantry to increase the surplus product of their harvest with the enormous mass of labor invested, made him to learn about the vast expanse of land of the East European Plain on the way to go preemptive continuous expansion of production areas. In addition, according to N.M. Karamzin (1766-1826), Slavs, probably after other nations withdrew from the East, from the fatherland of indigenous peoples [7;53]. Indeed, at the turn of the old and new eras there was a strong migration of peoples from Asia to Europe and the Slavs, not warlike by nature, according to M P Pogodin (1800-1875), were already at a certain level of education, familiar with agriculture and primitive arts, talked a rich language, and had an idea and beliefs about God and the afterlife, things they had brought with them from their ancestral home in India, with whom they still exhibit affinity [7;69]. 01020007

    3. Scheme of the Slavic peoples of the original areas of their habitat
    1. Slavic expansion
    2. the main area of the Slavs.

    7. Other European nations proclaimed that they exist without space. In Russia, they say, on the contrary: there is space without people, massive amounts of steppes and forests, causing special geopolitical, climatic and multi-ethnic state, diversity of economic structures, immensity of the territory, which existed already under Yaroslav the Wise in the XI century, equal in size to the rest of Europe. External relations, despite the dominance of primitive farming, since the time of Rurik had a branched character. Russians mastered the way to Byzantium, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Russian businessmen and fishers traded in the Baltics, Danube, in Baghdad, Constantinople and Alexandria are absorbed at the Khazar (Caspian), Russian (Black) and Varangian (Baltic) seas. Local entrepreneurs have pledged to economic stability and cultural and political development of Russia. 01020009

    4. A.I. Putilov

    8. Russian people of the Neolithic time gave Christ a nation of enterprising characters destined for the geographic space and exploits. These include, for example, chairman of the Company and Director of the Putilov factories and of Russian Asian Bank A.I. Putilov (1866 - after 1926). Owner of oilfields, skilful player on the exchange, receives tens of salary opportunities, has a titanic working capacity. He works day and night, having great organizational skills, self-discipline, intuition, ability to think perspectively. A.I. Putilov first in the morning appeared in the office of the bank and left far beyond midnight after sessions, meetings, dozens of boards, hundreds of securities, for which there were tons of cement, oil barrels, poods of grain, miles of railroads. Man of his word, practices and rationalist, combines the features of a dreamer and visionary. For himself A.I. Putilov spent modest amounts of money, meticulously bargained with cabbies [73; 152]. 01020011

    9. In this case, the primary economic activities aimed at the production of the means necessary to sustain human life, for direct consumption (food, clothing, housing) remain important in the world economy today. Just these kinds of economic concerns were and are a source of energy and motor for entrepreneurship and business. 01020012

    10. Our country has a rich heritage in economic activity. Establishment of business in Russia has come a long and difficult way from peddling to some of he world's largest enterprises. Business relationship, the most important part of which is entrepreneurship, has played an important role in the folding of the economic, cultural and political traditions of Russian life. 01020013


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    Taxation

    0104 Entrepreneurship as a kind of human activity
    0105 Overview of the development of modern business principles and values
    0106 Communitional psychology, Orthodoxy and entrepreneurship
    0107 Significance of cities for the development of entrepreneurship in Europe and in Russia
    02 Next chapter

    1. In what follows, we cannot do without linguistic research. And here's why. The key notion in the my course is the word tax, which in most soviet dictionaries is absent altogether or is replaced by synonymous fee, in some cases by the noun extortion. 01030001

    2. World history of these concepts (taxes and levies) are monetary tributes of conquered people to the winners. 01030002

    3. Since Biblical times is known the commandment of Joseph Magnificent to Kabalenian people of Egypt: When the harvest is available give one fifth to the Pharaoh and four parts shall be your own, to seed your fields, and nutrition your children and those who live in your households [Gen., 47,24]. This law - the fifth share of Pharaoh persisted thousands of years and allowed the writer L.N. Tolstoy (1828-1910) to call it the apology for violence of political economy. 01030003

    4. In the epics of peoples living in remnants of the tribal system before the formation of state, for example, the Altai nationalities, there is no words for relatives or brothers. Instead there is the expression of the people, paying tribute [63; 33]. Neither is there the term family, but instead there is the concept of monogamous small family and active struggle for it; mentioned are only relatives who live next door to each other and get together for the holidays on the occasion of marriage. 01030004

    5. Tribute - a concept made ​​to the epic story. Enemy (Khan-violence) not only grabs sister or wife, it destroys the yard and camp and takes people to distant realms, and imposes tribute, which is charged with extreme cruelty, cattle is roaring, people crying. 01030005

    6. But the imposition of tribute, which bore the character pay-off or contribution, was the first step to pacifying hostile parties, starting to develop the concept of citizenship. Defeated, paying tribute paid off the right to life and liberty. 01030006

    7. Exactions levied direct effect. People were accustomed to hierarchical society, to the order of giving a share of income to the governor. Otherwise, hostile Khan threatens the hostaged hero in chains if not a tribute is brought, there is a tail of wolf, the wolf comes, dragging his spear, with him war comes. To the imprisoned there is no mercy: "Inside the copper store a copper magnate lives, as big as a mountain, sits and keeps his black scores. "This Khan treasurer governs all copper and black iron [63, 49,50]. 01030007

    8. Right to levy taxes the state put up for auction. Tax collector became the one who promised the highest bidder. From taxes there was no mercy to anyone. Fortress walls around the cities not only protected citizens from enemies, but also did not let them escape from the tax collectors. Great chemist A.L. Lavoisier (1743-1794) acted more than twenty years as the general tax collector of France, and among other publicans, hated by the new bourgeoisie, was guillotined by the sentence of the Revolutionary Tribunal. 01030008

    9. It is clear that the tax collectors do not deserve kind words among people. Publican - resourceful man, but petty, roguish, unrighteous, greed. 01030009

    10. In Russia, the main payers of tribute proved to be smerds. Smerd is serf, according to V.I. Dahl (1801-1872), a man from the mob, a sneaky native, peasant commanding servants or slaves, and later - of serfs. 01030010

    11. In Middle Ages, institutions emerged uniting people (shop community, merchant guilds and brotherhoods, villages, parishes) capable of expressing their members' demands; prevented people of transforming into amorphous mass, herd, from the standpoint of authorities maintained the ease of collecting taxes. This rule applied in the pre-Mongol Rus' and the Golden era of Holy Russia the Moscow State, and at the time of statehood of Petersburg period, the slogan of which was the triple formula of the so-called paternalistic state: "Autocracy - Orthodoxy - Nationality". Landowners carefully explained to the peasants - we are yours, you are ours. Later known to us servants for decades proclaimed, all for the benefit of man, all in the name of man, and humorists added: we know the man's name. Right were satirist: The authorities in Russia have always thought about the people, another question is - what? 01030011

    12. Interpreting and explaining the details of the word nalog, V.I. Dahl produces it from the verb "to impose" and takes our attention to the subordinate concepts: tax - taxes, duties money or supplies; charges imposed on the estate, trade, crafts. 01030012

    13. Direct tax, according to V.I. Dahl, is applied directly to those who pay (eg, capitation, guild, judicial, revenue and other state duties). The term duty in antiquity meant custom according to belief in the need to obey the generally accepted norms and, in particular, any long existing collection. Duties for seafaring vessels were known already in "Russian Pravda» (XI c). 01030013

    14. Indirect tax is not imposed directly on taxpayers, although they cannot get around it (the tax on wine and tobacco). 01030014

    15. V.I. Dahl presents as similar concepts: tax on labor, burden, hard work, stress, strain. Taxpaying hardworking man, worker. 01030015

    16. In ancient Rus types of direct and indirect taxes were very diverse. First emerged in the form of fees, they moved gradually in taxes [18 182]. For example, strangles (muta, Mauth) of the fee for services rendered to trade for transportation of goods from one pier to another, or the ordering of trades involving various arrangements. This turned into an indirect tax on all trades, based on weight, number, use, measured by standard weights and measures, which were kept in churches. 01030016

    17. Since the time of the Golden Horde originated a purely trading fee from the advertised price of the goods - Tamga (brand, mark, stamp), it turned later into the customs duty. The term ясак (yasak) was used for a tribute for non-Russian freight on Volga, levied by Horde in the XIII century 01030017

    18. State taxes in general, dues, tributes and taxes, on capitation and on land, covered in Russia the term подать (podaty - tax). Unit was salary when calculating the direct charges, in different periods of Russian history as the tax units were used: smoke, hearth, yard, ral, the plow, the husband, the man who was charged to serve. All of these units were reduced to one individual households. By the middle of the XIX century burghers and peasants of all kinds formed the ​​taxable estate. On it lay respective responsibilities, to which they must comply, according to law or custom (in every class of society their trespass that the city, the donors, the village, the custom; in some cases custom, in another csar's decree). 01030018

    19. To pay tribute was traditionally expressed 'тягл тянути' (tyagl tyanuti - pull taxes) meant that Russian peasant anciently kept land as a 'traction ground' to send all income from it to the treasury of the landowner. V.I. Dahl explains that 'tyagly' farmer 'pulls tyaglets' full tax for two persons, usually peasant remained tax payer, that is as long as he remained in strength and was not cripled, from his marriage to the age of 60 years, then moved either 'polutyaglye' (paying half tax) a quarter tax or was completely exempt. As taxpayer was considered also worker, paying taxes, rents, duties and sending all income to the owner of the allotment, complete for the lot of land and meadows. Tractive was called the land allotment, the rest - spare, belonging to community or church. Every layout in the Russian community was on the taxes (husband and wife or family in the peasantry, until a man for his age or his health was considered taxfree) or on the souls, two souls considering the family; in case of multifamily, whoever got land for two, paid accordingly two taxes. 01030019

    20. So what is such 'тягло'? V.I. Dahl explains, and the measure of the earth, and complete information about it is called 'тягло'. In olden times, also every direct payment was called 'тягло'. This term is embodied in proverbs: 01030020

    21. Marry at 18, start sitting on the tax; not hard your tax, but as doubled tired you get; no legs on the stove, no hands in the cradle, yes third dead - tax; tax is hateful, laying peaceful. 01030021

    22. The term 'тягло' (tax) is a key concept in the history of domestic business. In the Explanatory Dictionary of Russian language it is derived from the verb 'тянуть' - pull (tyagivat or тягать - draw) branches from which are drawn to the reprint of V.I. Dalhl's publication, where it occupies 7 columns. For comparison, to the verb 'to love' of our language allotted 4 columns verbs work, and try to please - 3 column verb trade - 1.5 column. Incidentally, we note that of the formative nouns in the native language on the first place is hand (8 columns), after it - God and truth (6 columns), and will and head (4 columns) and labor (one and a half). Adjectives of color foremost is white (10 columns); to word black is allotted space less than half of that (5 columns), red - only 3 columns. 01030022

    23. In today's legal encyclopedia, taxes are defined as:

    1. Compulsory payments levied by the state from individuals and legal entities; Emerged with the advent of the state as a means to cover the costs of fulfilling its tasks and functions;
    2. Of taxes levied on citizens, the most important is the income tax;
    3. originally taxes were levied in kind, but with the development of commodity-money relations they acquired primarily monetary nature;
    4. tax payments took place primarily for military purposes, for the maintenance of the state apparatus, law enforcement and the implementation of different kinds of programs to regulate the economy and support for socially vulnerable segments of the population;
    5. According to the method of collection taxes are divided to direct, which are levied on the income or property of citizens or legal persons and paid by them directly, and indirect levied as an increase to the price of goods (usually consumer goods), and thus passed on to buyers (consumers) of taxable goods. Here is also a link to the excise tax (French accise) a form of indirect taxes, mainly for consumer goods and services included in the price of goods or service tariffs, an important source of revenue of the state budget.
    01030023

    24. About the size and means of tax fraud (combined with fiscal criminal Press), an appropriate modern parable is the case of two dairy farms. On one farm the hay was stolen and sold, and on the other milk. In the first case, of course, cows died, but the second gave even some profits and farm income to peasant. The current tax system in Russia is working according to the first scheme. Time would be, say academics, to cease all taxation on profit going on investment, including the development of social and cultural sphere, give tax breaks to priority sectors, especially in the field of high technology, resource saving, ecologically cleaner production. It is time to allow accelerated depreciation up to half of the profits. All this, they say, have already long time ago been introduced and widely used in highly developed market economy countries. 01030030

    25. It is not forbidden to dream about how to live beautifully. The main thing in the economy: the cows must not die. 01030031


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    Entrepreneurship as a kind of human activity

    0105 Overview of the development of modern business principles and values
    0106 Communitional psychology, Orthodoxy and entrepreneurship
    0107 Significance of cities for the development of entrepreneurship in Europe and in Russia
    02 Next chapter

    1. Some researchers believe that people is divided into three categories: one can, but does not want others want, but cannot, and still others want to, and can, but focus on unproductive activities. In any society, there are unclaimed talents more than working. Entrepreneurship is precisely aimed at meeting the needs of individual creativity and self-expression. Such as self-confidence, belief in luck, luck, favorable market conditions and commercial natural inclinations. The latter are particularly in demand as one criterion for competitiveness: the excess of income over expenditure. More disadvantaged layers such as bankrupt entrepreneurs, history, perhaps, does not know. But economic history as the cornerstone of life, according to VP Ryabushinsky is a history of its leaders [44, 159], fathers are founders of Russian trade and industrial estates, those who had the gift of entrepreneurship and constituted the most fertile layer of population; their children are Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kaluga, Kostroma and other men whose fathers used to say: "If not the Lord build the house, in vain work builders." Their role is particularly high because of the low purchasing power of the peasantry constituted the majority of the Russian population. 01040001


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    Origin of terms

    1. In Latin exists the word mancepts - entrepreneur, contractor. So initially was called farmer who collected government revenues. The term mancipium (mancipation) in ancient Rome stood for the right of property and the property itself, which was in someone else's property, and the sale procedure. It was formed from the merger of two separate words: manus (hand - violence - power - work - labor) and capio (acquire, inherit, assign; origin of term capital). Therefore mancepts is translated also as entrepreneur - a man who has earned the capital with his hands, his work, not only by persistence, but also by cunning and dexterity. 01040101

    2. By their nature, entrepreneurs are economic actors, as the economy is composed half by half of mathematics and psychology. 01040102

    3. In the XVIII century in Russia was spreading French word entrepreneur (entrepreneur) denoted in popular usage business person such concepts as predpriyatel predpriyatchik, predpriimchik, entrepreneur; landlord, organizer, owner, founder, manufacturer, breeder, head fishing ringleader. In prerevolutionary Russia with the term antreprener was constantly called owners, landlords of arenas - private entertainment enterprises (theaters, circuses, etc.). However, from the French word interes also originated the term interessant, seeker of self-interest, protector of only own benefits. 01040103

    4. In Russian, the word meant venturing, to execute any new business, company, start doing something significant. Examples in this regard in the dictionary of V.I. Dahl are two: "We are undertaking together the construction of a steamer" and "Lesseps undertook excavation of a canal on the Isthmus of Suez." As for the "steamship", the institution owes its Russian St. Petersburg breeder C. Byrd (1766-1843), a Scot by birth, who in 1815 opened after some experiments on the Neva River Shipping Company. The venture proved to be promising and profitable. In 1847, in all the rivers of the Volga basin swam only 12 ships, but 60 years later the number was 2099, including about a dozen double-deck passenger ships according to so-called American system. Entrepreneur C. Byrd was the founder of mechanical foundries in St. Petersburg, which built about 200 steam engines for the first 30 years of the XIX century, Including 11 steamers with steam engines. Manufacture of steam engines C. Byrd taught students - machinists, mechanics, blacksmiths - recruiting among those who could write. Besides salaries and allowances of grain from the Treasury, the founder of Russian entrepreneurial dynasty was paying students from his own means, from 5 to 15 rubles. per month for a five-year study period. 01040104

    5. F. Lesseps

    5. The third volume of the Explanatory Dictionary of V.I. Dahl was published in 1882, when the French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps (1805-1894) rocked as entrepreneur surprising the whole world by the construction of the Suez Canal, which linked the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. Engineer got his digging concession from the government of Egypt. Lesseps later headed the corporation for the construction of the Panama Canal, which scandalously went bankrupt in 1888, and languages were enriched by the word panama designating ever since the scam, a major political and financial fraud, bribery of ministers, senators, deputies, newspaper editors and ruin after the collapse of tens of thousands of small shareholders. 01040106

    6. Loading of commercial ship.
    "Life of Nikolay the Wondercreator"

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    Interpretation of concepts

    1. We now turn to a source of economic folk culture, which is epos expressing secular ideals, historical will and striving of the people belonging to more than one century, and to the era that lasted several centuries. Not noticed only by us that epic has certain advantages, which are not extinct until today. 01040201

    2. One of the most famous epic heroes became Sadko of Novgorod, who had no property before some guselki yarovchaty. However, even this corresponds to historical truth, because it is art and culture of ancient Novgorod, which represents one of the world's peaks in the development of medieval art (architecture, painting, literature, musical creativity). 01040202

    3. In one of the epic versions of Sadko, following the advice of the Sea King, betting with merchants that in Lake Ilmen fish have gold feathers. But he had nothing to lay on bet. Without hesitation, he lays his head. There are three merchants that lay every three shops with goods. Sadko really catches goldfish and wins the bet. Despised poor guslyar became rich: Sadko started bargaining, began to get great profits. Sadko, as you know, was the rich guest, and rich guests in ancient Rus were commonly called foreign merchants and tradesmen engaged in commerce with foreign countries or with other principalities. The term gostba (guest of God) designated overseas trade. The most curious thing is that in his dying hour Sadko feels no merchant but Guslyar. He does not leave his harp even before his death. 01040203

    4. Businessman in Russia is of a creative nature. Man remains always a creature acting on general level, holistic, microcosm, though he chooses a special activity. Make a person a gear of a huge machine means depriving him of the human dignity. 01040204

    5. In the modern interpretation the entrepreneur is a citizen engaged in entrepreneurial activity associated with investment for profit (business income) as a result of his own (or borrowed) capital and waged labor, based on a combination of personal gain with own life assertion and public benefit. Entrepreneur - a person with unstable income, is the leader of ideas, not of hierarchy. Entrepreneurs are different from other people so that they can take full responsibility for the final outcome of the case. They are the owners of the enterprise (sole or associate) involved in its management. 01040205

    6. Entrepreneurship is legal activity, business activity within the current law, creation of something new, having value, a process that absorbs time and effort, involving the assumption of financial, moral and social responsibility. The process of entrepreneurship as one of the factors (resources) of social reproduction is intended to connect, combine basic factors - labor, capital, ecosphere. 01040206

    7. The Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Article 2) is legally enforceable understanding of entrepreneurship: 01040207

    8. "Entrepreneurial activity is undertaken at own risk systematically aiming at profit from the use of property, sale of goods, works or services by persons registered as such in accordance with the law" [14, 6]. 01040208

    9. As you can see, at the forefront of this initiative of citizens' activities carried out on its behalf at its own risk and on own financial responsibility, or on behalf of and under the responsibility of a firm of legal entity (company), gaining profit, although it is known since antiquity that next to profit lies the possibility of loss. Entrepreneurial activity is not a win-win stencil. 01040209


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    Normative basis

    1. Entrepreneurship can be applied in all kinds of economic activities, if they are not prohibited by legislative acts, including notably the production of goods and services, commercial mediation, commerce and procurement, innovation (renewal), consulting and other activities, as well as security transactions. Entrepreneurial process usually consists of the following steps: 1) search for a new idea and its assessment 2) construction of a business plan 3) finding the necessary resources 4) management of the created enterprise. 01040301

    2. Among the adopted regulations on the development and regulation of market entrepreneurship we will list the following:

    01040302

    3. In accordance with these acts an entrepreneur can be a citizen of the Russian Federation, any foreign national or a stateless person, a group of citizens (partners). Entrepreneurs cannot be executives and specialists of government agencies, whose functions include matters related to business activities or control of such activities. 01040306

    4. Part of the profit retained by the entrepreneur after taxes and interest on the loan taken by him, is the entrepreneurial income in the form of personal income, dividends, profits, salaries, etc. 01040307


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    Signs of an effective entrepreneurship

    1. World experience shows that the market economy is possible only in the presence of numerous stratum of entrepreneurs - people with business acumen and energy, with a specific set of values​​, culture, relationships and ethics. 01040401

    2. In contrast to the administrative system of management relying on diligence and responsibility for the fulfillment of the subjects above, policy objectives, economic entities in the market economy achieve their goals by independent creative search through initiative, risk-taking and luck. 01040402

    3. There are following signs of entrepreneurship: the independence and originality of thought and action in business entity; innovation and achievement of the objectives, building on own initiative; taste for competition and a willingness to take economic risks; focus on achieving the best results; the efficient use of resources; the desire to win better position than others; the ability to choose among the possible alternatives. 01040403

    4. Students of the University of Culture and Arts, as a result of sociological sampling have presented a list of ten personal qualities required of an effective entrepreneur today (2001):

    1. professional competence
    2. entrepreneurship
    3. ability to communmicate
    4. self-confidence
    5. operability
    6. ability to bear risks
    7. dedication
    8. original thinking
    9. indepencence
    10. intelligence
    01040404

    5. Outside the top ten were mentioned qualities such as honesty and integrity, erudition, healthy lifestyle. 01040405

    6. As initial conditions for entrepreneurship can be mentioned: private property, free pricing, competition and legal protection of the legitimate principle of individuality. The last principle is associated with an awareness of citizenship in the public mind and determined will of not allowing the nation to be governed as a flock of sheep. 01040406


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    Overview of the development of modern business principles and values

    0106 Communitional psychology, Orthodoxy and entrepreneurship
    0107 Significance of cities for the development of entrepreneurship in Europe and in Russia
    02 Next chapter

    1. Theory of entrepreneurship has developed in several directions: from the individual having the ability of foresight and to take risks and the implementation of them in order to generate additional income, with simultaneous willingness to losses (R. Kantgaon, I. Tyunen, Phil Knight), through the representation of a basic function of the entrepreneur in the implementation of a rational combination of factors of production and extraction of business income (JB Say, A. Marshall) by recognizing innovative entrepreneurial activity as the main productive force of economic production process super-profits, and not the average profit (Schumpeter); the fourth direction is associated with management activities of the entrepreneur with a corporate form of organization of production (Galbraith, M. Porter, R. Hizrich, HB Stewart). 01050001


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    Type of the personality of entrepreneur

    1. To have success in business requires a certain type of person with a strong desire to achieve. Adam Smith (1723-1790) has mentioned several fundamental characteristics of human nature, most typically manifested in the activities of entrepreneurs:

    01050101

    2. Entrepreneur as the founder of a new business is more concerned with the prospects of business development, rather than short-term profit. According to psychologists, to this kind of activity in an environment capable of autonomous decision-making is present in no more than 12-15 % of people. This category of people must possess a number of qualities such as hard work, energy, determination, willingness to take risks and collapse, social responsibility, heightened sense of intuition, instinct of constructiveness. Instinct, intuition, exposure of calculation, finding hidden meaning in information and other heuristics are the hallmark properties, skates of entrepreneur in risk situations and have the ability to solve them advantageously from his point of view. 01050102

    3. Entrepreneurial personality type, embodied in three persons (conqueror, manager and trader), is defined by German sociologist Werner Sombart (1863-1941) as a heterogeneous, unlike homogeneous bourgeois type. 01050103

    4. Success in business entrepreneurship is not always dependent on education and so 90% of it is provided by ambition and desire to compete. However, decades of industrial growth in developed countries have shown that increasing the educational level objectively leads to the development of entrepreneurial skills, the desire to express themselves freely in labor. Thus, since the late 70-ies of 20th century began a renaissance of interest in entrepreneurship in economic theory. In all capitalist countries entrepreneurial education system began to unfold (although the first training programs in the United States took place already in 1940's.). This coincided with the growth of privatization in the UK, China and other countries, and has become an entrepreneurial response to a boom in business, manifested in significant increase in the number of small firms in general and expanding their spheres of economic activity. 01050104

    5. It is believed that to business are more inclined individuals, aiming at success and not being afraid of defeat. Profits they ascribe to their abilities and efforts, but also deficits are linked to this activity, with insufficient mobilization of the reserves now and this is a lesson for the future. Having the ability to get out of risky situations, an experienced innovator turns the defeat to success better than others. 01050105

    6. Enterprise as a wide field of creativity fully reflect the personality and character of its creator. 01050106


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    Motivation of entrepreneurial activity

    1. The key values ​​of innovation and economic culture appear to be originality of thought and creative research, organizational flexibility, focus on constant innovation, variety and intensity of contacts, respect for the identity of individuals, groups and nations, etc. [1; 73]. Transition to the innovative growth inevitably entails higher specific gravity values ​​and gives space to a purely entrepreneurial motivation and personal behavior. 01050201

    2. American economist Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950) has identified three main groups of business motives:

    1. desire to have one's own empire - to be sovereign lord in his own company, which designs the entrepreneur himself builds and which, if successful, fully responds to its demands, needs, values​​;
    2. will to win - an opportunity within one's own business to prove personal solvency,
    3. the joy of creativity - the ability to do what one likes, entirely appropriate to individual interests and attitudes, the ability to see concrete results of one's own efforts [6, 24].
    01050202

    3. As starting point for the identification of the ideal entrepreneur can serve the seeking of novelty or business for business as such for a cause greater than that of employees and managers, the desire for independence and autonomy. 01050203

    4. The greatest success in business, as history shows, was not achieved by those who pursued the goal of personal enrichment, had a habit of looking at all the benefits, saving money for the development of the business, but by those entrepreneurs who preferred commitment to provide a valuable service to society (Athanasius Nikitin, P.D. Larin, Demidov, Henry Ford), who were involved in a broad charity, those who needed money to carry out their dreams, achieve higher goals (R. Owen, G. Shliman, K.S. Alekseev - Stanislavsky, V. Tretyakov, etc.). These services (wealth obliges) aim to achieve higher intellectual, cultural, moral and ethical values ​​of public importance. 01050204

    5. Dictionary of V.I. Dahl mentions the words благотворительность, меценатство (charity, patronage) being derived from the word благовеличие, a word the derivatives of which comprise in the Explanatory dictionary of 9 columns. Major drivers of philanthropy in Russia of 19th century and early 20th century (note a whole galaxy of domestic patrons, such as P.P. Svinin, S.F. Mamontov, K.T. Soldatenkov, V.A. Kokorev Bakhrushins, Kaptsova, Morozov, Rukavishnikov Yu.S. Nechaev - Maltsev L.S. Polyakov, S.P. Riabushinsky) served religious and patriotic motives, and getting fame, nobility, social benefits and privileges (honorable nobility, orders, titles, profitable commercial transactions, etc.). 01050205

    6. Based on the methodology of ideal types of entrepreneurial culture, the German economist and sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) mentions that the desire to income and monetary benefits relate to people of all professions and classes of all ages and countries of the world where environmental conditions provide any opportunities for gain [6; 29]. A systematic and rational pursuit of legitimate profits within their profession is able to form, in his view, only a certain ethical system of economic human behavior - namely Protestantism, which does not condemn, like Catholicism and other world religions, wealth as such. On the contrary, this type of entrepreneurial ownership, acquisition gives nothing but good feeling of fulfilling duty within one's vocation [1, 74]. Such wealth was regarded as evidence of excellence and entrepreneur being awarded by gaining and squandering capital was seen on a par with the righteous. As a criterion of efficiency, Protestant capitalism is contrasted with other capitalism - opportunistic, usurer, relying on cash payment, impudence, selfishness and deceit. 01050206

    7. Biography of Weber embodied the idea of ​​entrepreneurial legacy: his grandfather belonged to the traditional layer of merchants; his mother was a reputed model of hard work and devotion. The interpretation of M. Weber of the new entrepreneurial spirit emerged as a synthesis of the awareness of religious and economic aspirations of his family. 01050207

    8. Modern Catholic Church considers the economy to cultural and business sphere, and accordingly considers entrepreneurship as cultural and business activity. In the recent literature with reference to the New Testament proves that unconditional condemnation in it concerns only "unrighteous wealth, based on breach of general moral principles of human relations," and that "contrary to popular belief," the gospel "does not contain a condemnation of wealth as such" [31, 328]. 01050208

    9. Historical destiny of entrepreneurship, as well as market and competition, is determined by historical epochs, each of which (Antiquity, Middle Ages, Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, Industrial capitalism, Post-industrial production, etc.) generates its own unique patterns of enterprise, its scope, objects, law and morality. 01050209


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    Communitional psychology, Orthodoxy and entrepreneurship

    0107 Significance of cities for the development of entrepreneurship in Europe and in Russia
    02 Next chapter

    1. European Protestantism preached that the rich man is pleasing God, and the poor is sinful; who is rich, he is hardworking, so he is chosen by the Lord, who does not beat but supports him. It is supposed that someone whoever has become rich by unjust methods is indecent and sinful. 01060001

    2. Primordially Russian Orthodox farmers, industrialists and traders associated their successful employment with the manifestation of God's will and deeds, the test of the strength of their faith to God was: God gave, God also takes, like the balance of births and deaths. The idea of ​​the omnipotence of Lord God in the peasant life was generated by extremely unfavorable weather conditions in most parts of the Russian state, sometimes nullifying the results of hard work: if God does not allow, the earth does not give; God gets what he wants, man only what he can. 01060002

    3. The American cult of wealthy people has not taken root in Russia and such, for example, as John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), robbed people for their own happiness to prove to the world. We endured also the cynical slogan of the pioneers of modern reformers: as long as we do not rob people, it will not work.. 01060003

    4. Russian people kept saying that God gives the wealth to man to be used and requires a report on it. Although the root concepts are common for Бог, богатства - (God - wealth) as it is inherent only in our language as, indeed, also the common root for words, God and the squalor, poverty. But the sense of fragility, the sinfulness of wealth was specifically a national trait, as reflected in particular in the passive position of a considerable part of the Russian bourgeoisie in October 1917 and after, the bourgeois elite, moreover, was for many decades in various fields of civilization with the Russian people. 01060004

    5. A.S. Griboyedov (1795-1829), writer and diplomat, a lover of Russian antiques, folk poetry, folk beliefs, customs and dress, long ago and shrewdly remarked about Russia: 01060005

    6. "If some event should be listed here for a foreigner who does not know Russian history for a century, he certainly would take the sharp contrast of the morals that gentlemen and peasants come from two different tribes who have not yet mixed up customs and mores "[59, 9]. 01060006

    7. In general, entrepreneurs are wary of Russian society, especially the most part - the peasantry, committed to community psychology with its equalized, suspicious attitude toward any other activities not related to the traditions of the community, and understandable to the masses convinced that it is better to be poor, but live according to conscience. In nobility towards merchants and industrialists dominated class prejudices (black bone), and large landowners sought to shield Russia from industrial capitalism by slavophilistic legislation. A considerable part of the intelligentsia raznochintsy (non-possessors) was convinced that wealth can only be achieved by deceit, theft, robbery and other unfair means (not to be in hell, not to amass wealth, devil for the rich children swings; for the rich devils forge money). Apt expression of M.I. Tsvetaev (1892-1941): the consciousness unrighteousness of money is in the Russian soul inextractable. This is why in the national consciousness wealth does not serve as an indicator of virtue. 01060007

    7. Vessel construction, 11th century

    8. Foreign entrepreneurs carefully studied their acquaintances among Russian merchants. They were religious people, but no deal could be done without drinking tea in an inn, and a at the fair of Makarevskoy mid 17th century daring little merchant head could throw a bunch of money for the payment of the evening, and at the same time wear decades the same coat and boots and bottles. 01060009

    9. Foreigners noticed that Orthodox chanting service perpetuated priority of the spiritual and moral principles over material. At the core of enterprise dominated not only economic success, but also service to the idea, society, harmonization of individual creativity and collectivist principles. Work must be not only productive, but also useful for others. Approval of other entrepreneurs was a matter of conscience. 01060010

    10. Consider from this angle two key concepts of the Russian people: артель (gang) and the мир (folk), which reflect community psychology. 01060011

    11. Artel, according to V.I. Dahl, is a partnership for mutual responsibility, brotherhood, where all are for one, one is for all, squad, consent, community, society, fraternity, bratchina for the general economy, particularly food, also to work together and section earnings, net of expenses, absenteeism. Despite the fact that the concept of the farm as a voluntary random mix of people, the benefits of it were recognized already in the 17th century Traces of it can be seen in the "Russian Truth" and to a certain extent in the documents of the community of the 17th century Novgorod at St. John the Baptist's church. From ancient times, the nature of the artel is clearly family-like, but its strength is in mutual consent and assistance: artel porridge is thick, one and cereals do not argue, in the family also porridge is thicker. 01060012

    12. In the history of domestic business known cooperative following: Burlatskii Gornozavodsk, Artel masons, carpenters, fishermen, profiteers, laborers, and later - stock cooperative in St. Petersburg and Moscow, fishing, trade, craft, regimental and beggarly farmers. 01060013

    13. Each guild chose boss Ataman, elder or foreman: through Ataman the gang is strong. So strong that the team of the city takes it seriously, if it turns into a band of, a mob, gang, mob, ospreys, a lot of people, the flock. 01060014

    14. Life in Great Russia, as we know, cannot be thought without the rural population (mir), based on dependence of the community, on brotherly love and mutual responsibility to each other. World was like a family, set himself the law of collectivist principles: save and avoid expenditure; do not run ahead, do not fall behind; behind - became an orphan, though posterior, but in the same herd. Lack of full equality in the mundane meeting obvious for a long time: in the middle satisfied, but at the ends rebelling. Man is no less inclined to outrage as to obedience. So subordinate all tendencies to human nature in general. 01060015

    15. Ratio of personal and collective elements evolved always in favor of generality: the world salivating spit - so the sea to peace Applications zalozhgasya head. World tied as the overall benefit and common problem: people - Ivan and I - Ivan, people in the water, nyav water. In devotion to the world known as the amount of moral force to provide bail people's happiness, international security: where the world but the people there are ladybug grace that the world order, God judged. People's belief that the world is strong and indestructible (worldly neck thick, Tuga, wiry) breeds irresponsibility and blind consciousness: Valnet the world - will carry all, go to the world, but not of arrival, even though he and the neck. From this belief arose and rules of conduct of individuals who come into the world and obey the common interests and values​​: smart guy, but the world fool; live with wolves - in wolf's way howl, when went into the herd - no barking and tail wagging, but then learned. 01060016

    16. Collaborative indulgence mendicant, a cheap charity associated primarily with Russian commercial and industrial estate, which at various stages of its formation was not alien to the contraction of wealth. Having low social status in comparison with, say, the nobility, it all means sought to strengthen its economic position, although getting the surplus product within the agricultural sector and in trade and industrial sector was a matter of long and often sinless, as evidenced by the folk wisdom: hard righteous not to make the stone chambers. 01060017

    17. Unknown author of the XVIII century left us way Anisimitch, a native of the merchant class, which is a wealth of knocks from the right path: first with a certain priest Isaac, he robs his father, then gets to the robbers, which also reserves the thieves without their production [26 278-279]. The plot of the novel Don Quixote new genus based on the biography of an Old Believer merchant Vassily Anisimovich Chupyatov referred G.R. Derzhavins (1743-1816) in his ode "grandee"


    To deceive his creditors, the bankrupt merchant seemed crazy, and, perhaps, became one after the fire exchange barns in St. Petersburg in 1761, which became one of the reasons of the bankruptcy of Anisimitch. 01060018

    18. According to V. Ryabushinsky in Moscow merchant unwritten hierarchy stood atop respect industrialist manufacturer. Then came merchant-trader, and stood at the bottom of the man who gave money growth into account bills, forced to work capital. It is not very respected, like cheap money it may be and as it is decent he was, - percenter [44; 165]. 01060019

    19. Russian V.V. Vereshchagin (1842-1904), traveling in the Altai region, pointed out entire villages consisting except telegraph, customs official and a priest entirely of merchants, leading usurious trade with aliens and Mongolia. About percentage of lucre, for example, Chui traders eloquently testified their palaces Biisk. Is typically then dizzying growth capital Mokina merchant who came to Altai camp in 1860 a small trader, who had five horses and 10 head of cattle. In 1875 he was included up to 3,000 head of cattle in 1887, handing the goods on credit for 25,000 rubles. only Altaici, subdue them a debt obligation, the trade turnover of an entrepreneur amounted to 150,000 rubles. Over the vast territory under the summer pastures, winter distillate, hayfields and under homestead Mokin Altaici paid nothing, and in government coffers contribute only 6 rubles a year in rent. Trading profits, according to observations Vereshchagin, was primarily the result of calculation and deceit consequence bondage and personal dependence of local farmers, hunters and herdsmen [63, 238-240]. 01060020

    20. Another example - a monastery near the Teles lake emerged in 1862 on the initiative of Barnaul merchant Malkova in bringing the government land concessions empty-lying Chulyshman valley in order to spread Christianity in the Altai and civilization. But the void land existed only on paper, but living near the Lake Teles Altai faced with a choice: either get out of here on the poor and uncomfortable, or to pay rent to the monastery. For the right to put the tent in our native places Altaian had to pay and collected the money given to them only one church, one rub. per year for the right to sow barley - 1 rub. pood sown seeds; for grazing cattle - 25 kopecks a head, small - 5 kopecks.; harvested hay for mop - 10 kopecks, for the use of forest - 1 rub. per year [63, 243]. 01060021

    21. Considering versions of the origin of entrepreneurial culture in general, we should agree with the conclusion of Fernand Braudel (1902-1985), author of the fundamental work on the history of the world of the middle ages and the new era, that she "could not get out of a strictly limited source: his word said here economics, his word - politics; his word - society; he also used the words culture and civilization. And also history that has often been the ultimate authority, which determines the correlation of forces "[7, 78]. 01060022

    22. This conclusion is most applicable to domestic realities. 01060023

    23. Historical science in purely external, esoteric way proves that the Russian people turned to Christianity with the blessing of God, created a comprehensive set of orthodoxy, confessional orthodoxy received from the Creator. Russian people embraced Christianity on a whim, with Most Lucent mind, pure soul, it was already truly great in all deeds, wise people, mysterious, that is, designed to address specific challenges ahead, not yet revealed to mankind, with the soul of good will. It was the people of the Sun Christ, who was able to shrink prehistoric past and stamp on a steel spring, was able to withdraw into itself and re-expand in space, dominating the space with love, desire and sword. 01060024

    24. This is what the present philosophers and spiritualists think of our nation - nation chosen by God. 01060025

    25. There is no doubt that the Orthodox branch of Christianity grafted people under Vladimir I in 988, did not bear fruits also earlier: in the first squad of the Varyag was a lot of Christians. In 945, at the conclusion of peace with the Greeks, some Slavic warriors took the oath according to Orthodox law. 01060026

    26. Commitment to the ritual side of Orthodoxy in Russia strengthened during centuries. Dutch painter and writer K. de Bruin (1652-1727), in 1701, being in Arkhangelsk, then in Moscow, in his notes amazed Russian people who "in their relations among themselves watching a rather strange custom. On entering the room, they do not say a word before, but looking for the most sacred image, which is always available in each room. Finding it, they do in front of it three bows, cross themselves at the same time saying, "Lord, have mercy!" - as well as: "Peace to the home and people living in it, and again make sign of cross, then they already say hello to the owners and lead a conversation with them. The same thing they do when visiting foreigners, creating bows before the first picture they see thus showing the fear before God, not forgetting to give him a befitting reverence "[71, 76]. 01060027

    27. De Bruin painted and numbered in Moscow, in the Kremlin and in other parts as well and nearby capital, for an earthen wall, about six hundred and seventy-nine churches and monasteries, and the same with them almshouses. 01060028

    28. But there is in the Russian character trait opposite to divine personal freedom. L.N. Tolstoy called this uncomplaining need to be part of the whole, part of a common destiny, self-forgetfulness in common endeavors, including refusal of personal freedom and responsibility, swarms start. From this writer's premise has grown not only Plato Karataev, but also the belief that the Russian people - being supposedly easily convinced, in and of itself, without a strict boss and suggestion, it would not go out from his hut, not even to bring out waste. Lowly people, overwhelming in its non-acquisitiveness, greyness in external life, but dishonesty, general turmoil. 01060029

    29. And what is it but a lack of initiative, the need for foreign prodding? Without a thunder clap peasant will not cross fingers. Roasted cock - points our wisdom? Just look at the same Englishmen in his soul he is always the player if he is a serious businessman, and "our players are not very careful and slow, the decision is not taken immediately, but waiting, but, once it is accepted, bend the line hard and ductile despite failures " [42 159]. At the same time eloquent experts, selfishly counting every step, surprised Russian dedication and patience: send, say, a simple Russian man to his death - he goes without question, without even asking why he was sent. 01060030

    30. The people in poems and prose stories are not spared. In the song of Thomas and Yarema content is satire image adventures of two brotherly persons in nature similar to each other; whatever is undertaken for any profitable activity to improve their life every attempt fails. Well-meaning as Thomas Yarema ever are by nature, but lazy to the extreme, not accustomed to serious work, but why not try easily achieve a better position. In people's satire a bubble is developed and they pretend being professional handicrafts making good trade. Brothers conceived in their heads a plan to feed themselves properly finding bread, but they are not crafts, and only serve to ruin them and wasting time and money. When this business turns out badly, the failure being their own fault and Thomas Yarema turn annoyed and sorry and take up new, according to their calculations, more profitable businesses and crafts. Comic situation for Thomas and Yarema is that their practice (simple eating) always contradicts wide designs and fantastic dispositions, enthusiasm and boasting, well reflecting eternal temptations of Russian man. Burdening peasant labor (acquiring bread by stealing it from the fields or from the barns), they undertake urban employment, trade for five cents, but never profitably: find no butter nor bread to be nourished properly. Thomas and Yarema are a mockery of true business people. 01060031

    31. But among national spiritual virtues have long been valued qualities such as loyalty to Orthodoxy, piety, humility, humility, compassion, love for the common good, modesty. Vices are also recalled such as self-will, arrogance, deceit, lack of firmness, laziness, tendency to suspiciousness of others and to new ideas, especially Western ones. 01060032

    32. Natural delicacy of the Russian character deprives a person of enterprise - to put themselves out of fear of assessing one too high and one's influence inconveniencing others. 01060033

    33. Modern mystics do not appreciate L.N. Tolstoy, adding that the Russian people are acting by the force of some inexplicable woven design, with a unique history, which must be exaggerated tirelessly until the end of forces. In a state that stresses its citizens, where nobody else any more lives, they are not looking for individual liberty, but for the truth. 01060034

    34. As a preliminary conclusion, we note that two distinguished types of Russian civilizational rationality presented by M. Weber rationality in values is much closer than rationality in purpose. 01060035


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    Significance of cities for the development of entrepreneurship in Europe and in Russia

    02 Next chapter

    1. In Western Europe, by the definition of Max Weber, the city in ancient times was considered as a fortress and as a settlement whose inhabitants were engaged in crafts and trade more than in agriculture. In the ancient Russian city, the original term refers to any enclosure (fortified) place or settlement. In the presence of warlike neighbors population needs protection. To this end also city was created and it built fence of military defensive character, inside of which each citizen, merchant and artisan could more or less safely exercise his business. City as a special trade, military and economic unit gradually swelled from craving village courtyards; welfare and prosperity of its convenience of location was determined as the market, that is, the place where production and tools were sold and exchanged. 01070001

    2. Ancient Rus is called country of towns. The main reasons for the creation of cities were popular production and trading needing suitable market conditions. 01070002

    3. Old Russian city took shape mainly of three elements: the fortress bargaining tenements. In large cities, in addition to the main bargaining occurred several smaller marketplaces, sometimes with the specific fishery (hay, fish, meat, etc.). Most often, these Torzhok settled near the river bridge and crossings. 01070003

    4. In some ancient cities allocated special settlements - settlements, the population of which was given to personal freedom, they were released at a time from taxes. Sloboda was often sided by a tax-free area, and eventually grew into it often. Suburban population of different specialization - known servitors, craft, fishing and other settlements. They differed as to the owners on the lands which were created: the prince, monastery, etc., initially characterize the territorial integrity and its own control system. 01070004

    5. We will stay in examples of these 01070005

    6. In settlements in monasteries laity formed craft villages, shopping centers. In Byelozero on the banks of the Sheksna besides ordinary houses, some served in the X-XIII centuries both workshops for casters, bone carvers, potters and others, discovered kilns, forges, dehydrators and smokehouse for fish. A high level of urban culture characterized tools for writing, writing on everyday things, the abundance of imported products [20 48,53,194,197]. 01070006

    7. Vladimir Monomakh (1053-1125), Prince of Kiev, paid special attention to his father's parish and Rostov-founded near his city in his name, which was destined to become the center of Vladimiro-Suzdal. The city has been put on a high bank of the river Klyaz'ma flowing into the Oka and thus associated with large Volga trade route. 01070007

    8. Nizhny Novgorod, founded in 1221 by Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich on a high plateau at the confluence of Oka river to Volga, became for Vladimir-Suzdal principality an important strategic and commercial support point to its eastern borders [20, 178]. 01070008

    9. Enterprising Novgorodians, already in the 11th-12th centuries paid attention to the natural sources of salt, but settlement on the site of the Permian Komis Villages emerged only around 1430, when the salt-boilers of Kalinnikova natives of Vologda, started steaming on the riverside Usolki. Thus arose Solikamsk, favorable geographical position of which, a convenient waterway for hauling salt and huge reserves of brines at shallow depths attracted many tradesmen, especially after the accession in 1472 of land along the Kama, along with Great Perm to Moscow. 01070009

    10. Salt production becomes large-scale non-agricultural activity with a technology known a long time. Wells were drilled in which water was pumped back was obtained already saline, which then was evaporated in special vats. 01070010

    11. Urban wooden fortress in a remote forest edge, the future Solikamsk had double log walls, the space between them was covered with earth. Fortress belted deep ditch. She had Spassky, Nikolsky, St. George, Peter and Paul and the gate five towers. At the armed fortress in the XV century There were two copper and 36 hand arquebuses, ammunition consisted of 266 iron nuclei and one pounds of lead bullets. So the city could successfully repel raids of neighbors of the Siberian Khanate. 01070011

    12. A necessary feature of a European city, Weber rightly believed market presence is not sporadic and regular trade with the influx of overseas goods and handicrafts. City could occur either as a convenient transit point for them, the privileges and protection of obtaining market levies, duties, process payments. Particularly important was getting the privilege to establish the market and attract settlers that was given to clearly demonstrate their abilities entrepreneur. Most often, according to Weber, it was in the Middle Ages, especially in the eastern, northern and central European areas of town, whose people were merchants and artisans. In the space between the Pyrenees and the Rhine, there were about 90 countries grouped in the Middle Ages around urban centers 01070012

    8. Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhegorod kreml 14th century

    13. Around the monasteries, for example, grew many British cities. They had their existence convenient location for trade exchange, although most of the major cities in Europe emerged from the manor, especially princely, as the center of the yard, to meet the economic and political needs that specialized production, trade was conducted. City was not called oikos (Greek oikeo - inhabiting) large settlement or county, even if there were large number of dues -paying artisans and small traders, for whom production for the needs of princely court was very important, often the primary source of income [9, 309-310, 311]. 01070014

    14. With Christianity in European cities penetrated the doctrine of the poor, living on alms in the name of Christ, to rich God grant silvery for the poor. Begging, some appealed to the means for the salvation of others, gradually becoming a kind of entrepreneurship. Position of the society was approved by the mendicant friars church regulations. The monks did not have any property, lived on voluntary alms, for the collection of which they went to cities, villages and hamlets, fulfilling the commandment of Pope Leo XII that, that people should not forget the commandment of charity. Old Russian custom of feeding the poor with a penny (instead of targeted assistance), only out of a pious mind, the fruit of the poor and a special kind of income - begging. Saving poor sinners were divided according to their origin as coming from graveyards, palace, yard, patriarchal, cathedral, monastery, church, walking and lying [67, 144]. Today, this classification can complemented by each of us. 01070015

    15. In settlements of ancient Russia freestyle beggars who have renounced riches of this world and their property, carrying the cross of humility and patience, surrounded by the poor, lamed, Bobyli, fugitive, Pogorelov, blinded, who chose their begging as their way of life. Their services, according to the historian, were used by the magistrates and clerks, and clerks, and the boyars, and landowners, and martial people, and Tatars [67, 139]. Indulging mendicant turned to Russia in the habit. Already under Vladimir I (?-1015) were mentioned beggars, and during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise (ok. 978-1054) they attain legal status in society and are accepted as church people. Such manifestations can be considered a feature of industrial life, such as: 01070016

    16. Significant differences western medieval city, noticeably influenced the culture and level of economic development of entrepreneurship, can be regarded as such manifestations of trade of industrial life, such as:

    1. guild organization of handicraft labor and trade credit;
    2. distinction established between land freely alienable right, completely free of duties or lined with firmly established salaries, transmitted by inheritance of land owned by the city and peasant land allocated for use on a variety of conditions to own the land, the village community or the market, or related levies in relation to them
    3. disappearance of class differences in the extent to which different people free from unfree due burgher policy known principle: " city air brings freedom ", in other words, after a different, but always fairly short period of lord of that servant or dependent losing the right to lay claim to its subordination to their authority;
    4. intensive development of the free division of labor within the local urban economy on the basis of medieval local market and production to order, followed by an expanding exchange of products between cities based on the domestic industry, then - a manufactory for sales the foreign market based on free labor.
    01070017

    17. Vital element of the medieval European city was the formation of merchant and artisan guilds (shops). Guild or shop within the boundaries of the urban community a monopoly of production or trade. Guild members paid significant amounts of money in the total cash for their corporate privileges (right to manufacture and sell their products). These offices represented the medieval mutual fund. 01070019

    18. Social structure and people's life was characterized by such features as the organization of urban communities and the establishment drinking houses. Local pubs are known in the West since the time of Charlemagne (VIII cent.), as well as repeated warnings since then: that monks and clerics did not go to the inn for food and drink [67, 215]. Tavern called the Old Slavic public places known from the beginning of the XI century Drinking and eating houses, foliage collected for completion of public affairs, and for conversations Bratchina Novgorod, Kiev, the Baltic and southern Slavs. There ushers handed people ruling authorities, negotiated disputes between the debtor and the creditor. Tavern replaced later town hall and living neighborhood. "Russian Truth" in the wording of the XII century uses within the meaning of the verb korchmstvovat (shallow retail). Voluntary korchemniki were paying taxes. 01070020

    19. Inside the city walls on the open market squares trade occurred, the proceeds of which belonged to the city, individuals and guilds. Establishment and oversight of the urban markets were the most common and the most valuable of municipal privileges. Market police in medieval Europe warned cheats regulated production costs and provided natural price. Purchase of bread on the way to the market and reselling it at higher prices were considered punishable misdemeanors. Market needed police to oversee weights and measures, for bread and beer, to chase false scales and measures and oppose buying interest, warn falsification of goods. Guilty were punished with fines. 01070021

    20. To enter into any commercial transaction in the Middle Ages certainly had to haggle. Sometimes the transaction involved witnesses, and when it came to significant amounts, the parties exchanged documents. 01070022

    21. Membership in urban markets and fairs was the so-called court dusty feet when a traveler, bargaining itself the right product, entered into a dispute with the seller, often transitioned into a fight. These misdemeanors were punishable summarily and peremptorily. 01070023

    22. City on the principles of self-regulated monopoly and had the right to issue laws for himself with the only condition that these laws do not interfere, and contributed to the common good. 01070024

    23. Trade and craft agreements were strictly binding. English economist T. Rodgers (1823-1890), brought together a wealth of material on the economic history of England, said: "The Athenian and Roman laws were written in blood debt, and the rigor with which capital and interest recoveries, are well known." Therefore, slavery prevailed in ancient times in English history, Rogers explained the penalty for non-performance of a contract, offset (compensation) for unpaid debts. Ancient English law forced the debtor to pledge their land and respond to self for the debts [69, 107]. 01070025

    24. Consequence of municipal government and religious influence urban communities became a manifestation of public charity, for charity - one of the great fruits of the Christian idea of ​​who did not know paganism. In the XIII and XIV centuries. European cities appear in public hospitals, orphanages with almshouses. With the rapid development of trade and industry in the same period, public funds are raised capital public buildings: the town hall, living courtyards, covered markets, merchant assembly halls. Construction Inspectorate regulates the construction of buildings in the cities with the rules of fire safety. 01070026

    25. Urban population respected creators. Charging Arnolfo di Lapo build a church, the people of Florence chastised him 01070027

    26. "You utilize such a structure, grander and more beautiful which could not imagine a human art, you have to create it so that it corresponds to the heart that became extremely great, combining the soul of citizens, united in one mind" and- 01070028

    27. Tangible impetus to the cause of public education, as well as the development of the entrepreneurial spirit, gave the Reformation, in 1532 was transformed the University of Basel, in 1560 founded the University of Strasbourg. 01070029

    28. Russian cultural studies I.I. Dityatin (1847-1892), professor of Public Law at St. Petersburg and Tartu University, proved as a historical truth that development of Western European cities is the result of most of the urban population, activity, never dies, not even in time of strangled absolutism in XVIII century Applied to the history of Western European city in general I. Dityatin echoed A. Thierry (1795-1856), a specialist in the history of the Third Estate, uttered in relation to the communal movement in France: "everything was a matter of merchants and artisans who made up the population of cities" [18, 105]. 01070030

    29. It is known that the French Revolution began in 1789 with the fact that the deputies of the National Assembly convened by Louis XVIII (1755-1824), the king refused to take pleasing taxes and rejected all attempts to pressure. Thus began the French parliament, representing the end of the XIII century all classes, and relying on the aristocrats and urban artisans shops, and clergy. In other words, for civil society, able to mobilize people, in addition to the state, to protect one or another of his interests. 01070031

    30. Union organizations or individuals to maximize the effectiveness of trade and industrial activities contributed to eventually develop mutually beneficial trade and all sorts of exchange transactions is the connection elements within each country and between countries on the basis of international trade law. Principles of business associations in the cities included the provision of property and personal security, personal liberty and democracy (representative) government. 01070032

    31. The main interest of a person in the West is wealth. Once a man is rich, it means that God loves him - dictates the Protestant ethic. Simultaneously in European legislation and Christianity were strengthening strictly human rights as such, independent of the state of origin. 01070033

    32. Orthodox ethics, by contrast, the accumulation of wealth considered a sin, a man was ashamed to show openly his selfish interests. Even if he had such, he tried to hide them. 01070034

    33. For Russia has been and remains a characteristic, because of significant, unavoidable and does not make a profit costs, massive enterprise, having the character of subsistence production, production for survival, not a market-oriented, but to customer value. This self-sufficient production within the household or other closed economic system (oicos) wore an informal nature, that is not subject to taxation or refuge from it (the shadow economy, illegal work). In modern conditions, examples legally unregistered businesses can serve not only private carting services, large-scale organized crime, criminal work, but quite respectable activities as export of crude oil or natural gas. 01070035

    34. Given the obvious desire to centralize power in the different periods of Russian history, the impression that the main form of business arose from above, that is a result of decisions of the government. When this could not develop any strong group of self-governing local communities, defending the interests of civilian trade of industrial estates. In contrast, the total concentration of power and wealth, which was observed in certain periods of Russian history and accompanied by some despotism, servility and others fleeing from the country only hindered the development of domestic entrepreneurship. 01070036

    35. But opposition to the harsh conditions, a lot of work on the development of land contributed to the development of the people is extremely important for business features (energy, stamina, patience, initiative). 01070037

    36. In Russia, where six to eight months of the year the majority of the population was free from direct employment in agriculture, the bulk of the peasantry has long been engaged in a variety of homemade crafts with the sale of the surplus on the market that are no less important factor in the social division of labor, than the development of handicraft industry towns Western Europe [52, 485]. 01070038


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    Chapter 2.
    Entrepreneurship in the princely era of ancient Russia


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    Period before territorial division

    01 Prev chapter
    0202 Entrepreneurship resistivity-veche period pre-Mongol Russia
    0203 Golden Horde period
    0204 Entrepreneurship in the late fifteenth-century
    03 Next chapter

    1. Princely era history of the Russian people in terms of enterprise development can be divided into three periods: Period before territorial division, resistivity-Veche and the Golden Horde. 02010001


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    Trade routes and crafts

    1. In doudelny period (period before territorial division, IX- XI centuries). Various Slavic tribes settled in the Central Russian plain, as trade routes took the Dnieper with its tributaries, the Western Bug, the Upper Volga and Dvina, lakes Ilmen, Ladoga and Peipus. Great waterways, shipping and location of river systems contributed to the development of extensive trade relations, which, in addition to purely economic interest, determined the completde economic way of life of ancient Russia. Own livelihoods of our ancestors provided in arable farming and crafts lined up all over the city round the world trade route, including actively in international trade the products of their own fisheries. Entrepreneurial interest was the basis for the formation of Kiev Rus. Through the merchants penetrated into Russia trends cultures of East and West with their literature, religion, art, architecture. 02010101

    2. The first, covering the period of ancient Russia and the Russian principalities, called the period of spontaneous entrepreneurship, who had no legal clearance and have no regulatory impact of state [97, 4]. 02010102

    3. Note that the trade route along the Volga controlled Finno-Ugric, Khazar and Turkic tribes. Rich plains of the south adjacent to the Black Sea, occupied nomads. Each tribe had its own prince. Chronicle mentions special reign in clearings Drevlyan, Dregovichy, Novgorod Slavs, Polotsk, Krivichy and other contemporaries testify that the Slavs did not suffer rulers and live in disagreement with each other; independence they love most and do not allow yourself to pay allegiance; they do not need supreme power, endeavor to resolve all together at the Chamber [7, 159, 165]. 02010103

    9. Seafaring of Russian entrepreneurs on Baltic Sea and White Sea (10th to 12th centuries)

    4. Intra-family relationships reflect the characteristics of clan control, separation of the tribe who had land as common property and tribal coffers. On the basis of agriculture as an economic life of ancient Slavic calendar says, which arose when the generic structure From the materials of archaeological sites is known about the population cultivation of rye, wheat, oats, millet, vetch, hemp, flax, cucumber, fruit trees. Developed and animal husbandry. Fishing, hunting, beekeeping were at that time supporting fisheries. Archeologists have found iron plowshares and coulter from plows naralniki and hoes, shovels shackles, sickles, scythes, millstones. Development of metallurgy, blacksmithing, exerted an active influence on agriculture, in conjunction with other industrial activities have led to the isolation of crafts as an independent branch. Branch handicrafts from agriculture to start separating the city from the village and the emergence of commodity production, not only works on the principle of self-sufficiency, but also on the market. Commodity economy has a direct impact on the development of exchange, trade as an independent branch of the economy, contributed to the emergence of merchants, moneylenders. Monetary circulation is constantly fueled by imports of eastern dirhams, then of Western pence. 02010105


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    Beginning of government activity

    1. Already in the VI-VII centuries. Volhynia and the Carpathians formed union of Slavic tribes headed by prince, one of the first manifestations of the state of the Eastern Slavs. 02010201

    2. Chronicles of Kiev elevate him to the legendary era Kyi, who founded a half thousand years ago the capital Polyansky princes, sages and wise men, who laid the foundations of statehood - Polyansky confederacy of tribes. Polyansky princes and vigilantes have joined many tribes first within the Russian land with the main cities of Kiev, Chernigov and Pereyaslavl, and later expanded the borders of Russia to the White Sea and the Azov and the Black Sea and the Volga to the Tisza and Sana [20 33]. Prydniprovsky land amounted to the original nucleus of the Old Russian state pre-division period, which was defined as a public association of free people to enforce the peace and order of the presence of such essential features as:

    02010202

    3. The life of Slavic tribes implied specified attributes [22; 63]. 02010203

    4. In the first half of VII century in Western Europe there Frankish state, whose ruler Charles Martel (688-741) blocks the path of the Arabs in Europe. The name of the other Frankish king Charlemagne (742-814) associated with the formation extensive European empire. 02010204

    5. During this period the historical arena come Slavs, composing tribal populations of national education. In 862, Pope Nicholas I of Constantinople excommunicated Photius from the church, causing a separation of the eastern, Greek Church from the West, the Roman Catholic. Separation of church regarded as an intense pulse of Christ oust the European East, whereby, according to Rudolf Steiner, the Russian people in the broadest sense of European civilization became the people of Christ [7, 95]. 02010205

    6. The social life of the Slavic tribes conceived in city-states, had combined the beginning: some - on the structure of fortresses, others - from the villages. Many of them (Staraya Ladoga, Novgorod, Kiev, Smolensk) existed in Russia long before 862, chronicles the advent Varangian princes - Rurik and his brothers. No wonder the Vikings called ancient Rus Gardariki, ie country of towns. Oleg from Yaroslav to every city paid tribute to the Varangians 300 hryvnia, dividing the world and fear of looting. 02010206

    7. Public order Slavs was not something arbitrary, created at the behest of the supreme power, and rested on the needs of human nature, in the state is quite detectable. These institutions, arising from the nature of man, and the establishment of property owned. Average value of the property was considered reasonable to all others; owner of moderate means were usually characterized by prudence and confidence. 02010207

    8. Russian government initially evolved over a vast area, which was needed in defense spending long borders and new areas. 02010208


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    Foreign trade

    1. Large commercial businesses ancient Rus catered mainly to the external market. From time immemorial, Zamora exported grain, honey, wax, fur products marine fisheries, timber, hemp (cannabis product of primary processing - raw materials for the production of ropes, cables, etc.). Caravans North-South and East-West in need of protection and support, especially in the tribal hatred and competition. 02010301

    2. The main organizers of the foreign trade of this period, according to the surviving texts of treaties with the Greeks 907, 911, 944, 957 and 971 years were Slavic princes Oleg, Igor, Olga and Svyatoslav and Boyar supreme know, the big landowners. "Jewish and Khazar element" - in the words of A.I. Solzhenitsyn. More than a century Jews participated intensively in the extensive trading activities Kiev beneficial to the treasury [98, 14-15]. 02010302

    3. It is known that one of the tribes of the northern Slavs (Novgorod Slavs) call for Norman himself, and those trying to get rid of the hatred of the Slavs, join tribes. Princes surround themselves warriors, which flow into the most adventurous, bold, independent personality, highly value their honor, the first agrarian owners. It is precisely in Novgorod, the largest craft center of Northern Russia, with special force acts individually, economic beginning. Very dangerous people involved in foreign trade, have already gained their degree of independence. Combatants with whom princes shared part of the tribute collected or harvested, were peculiar and personal interest in sharing required for this mobility, the ability to stand up for themselves and protect the goods from plunder. 02010303

    4. In the vast expanses of the Slavic lands were few people. Duke guard duty was filthy peasant, attract into their possession as much as possible of the peasants. 02010304

    5. Military campaigns of squads of Oleg, Igor and Svyatoslav under the walls of Constantinople, the mastery of the great trade route from the Vikings to the Greeks and Saracens, connects the Baltic Sea with the Caspian and Black, and finally the adoption of Christianity created the prerequisites for establishing close economic, diplomatic and cultural ties between Kiev Rus and Byzantium, the Arab East and the Holy Roman Empire, is in an era of world centers of culture and business. Originally a major role in foreign trade played Varangian merchants arriving to Russia as part of their fellow warriors. But in this were actively involved also wealthy businessmen of Slavic origin. 02010305

    6. Vikings in Novgorod and Kiev met socially close to them and needs the cooperation of class guests - merchants engaged in foreign trade, gostba. Business and trade in most of the population lived. Products for foreign trade extracted by taxation tribute hunting, animal capturing and agricultural tribes inhabiting Russia, organization princes and boyars, merchants, independent and crafts, tying special economic ties with neighboring populations. Securing trade merchants made ​​warriors they carried weapons, participated in the militia, hired guards to protect the trade caravans. 02010306

    7. Around the middle of the X century political influence extends to the Kiev Rus, Galicia and Volyn Rus, including its western suburbs. The value of these lands in the international exchange of goods determined by their position on the paths connecting Western Europe with Russia and its eastern neighbors, including China. On the Danube in Regensburg formed a special partnership ruzariev - merchants with Russia. 02010307


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    Significance of Orthodoxy

    1. A number of cultural studies point in the Slavic character pre-division (pagan) period prevalence of epicurean start as one of the features sensual civilization. Enjoying prefer activities; underdeveloped therefore aligned with the entrepreneurial impulses of courage and bravado. In folk epic epicurean especially characteristic Prince Vladimir, feasting at the court which became a favorite subject of folk tales and songs. 02010401

    2. But the annals transmit lesson dating back 980 th year, which led the good wives said that every woman, finding a wave and flax, creates his own hands of the latter case, resembling a ship, buy deyuschi. Items crafted home industry, there was no need to send for sale and exchange in Zamora, as they are marketable at the porch of his house. In ancient Russia was encouraged not only manufacture products for daily needs, but also those kinds of crafts that meet the aesthetic requirements of the wealthy population. Under the 986 th year of the Laurentian Chronicle reports that Jeremiah, who had a high priesthood, encouraged every way of making art. Development of handicraft production both in terms of basic necessities (linens, fabrics, wheels, carts, etc.), as well as luxury and arts, promised in the future to do full or part without the expensive purchases of these items from other nations. Artisans themselves and their secrets (Tricks) protected from encroachment, and deprivation of his artisan bribes rated as a criminal act, as adultery and perjury. 02010402

    3. To fight the heathen Epicurean same Vladimir in 988 attracts Eastern Orthodoxy with its austerity, the ideals of chastity, sincerity and simplicity of Christian love, opposed manifestations of pagan immorality, cunning, deceit, cruelty. Christianity adopted as the state religion, spurred final folding state, encouraged ideological, spiritual, cultural consolidation settled on the East European Plain ancient Slavs. 02010403

    4. Prince Vladimir Kiev Rus was mint its own gold and silver coins, which then gave way to the silver ingots - the hryvnia. 02010404

    5. In Kiev, already in the reign of Olga (? -969) and Vladimir conducted extensive construction, the Kremlin was created with stone walls, palaces and monasteries. Kremlin became the center of the famous temple Desyatinny (998), huge in size and luxurious in interior decoration, in front of which was a square with statues. 02010405

    6. During the amalgamation of numerous Slavic tribes in the great Kiev state in X. efforts builders entrepreneurs came to replace wooden monumental architecture of ancient Russia, as evidenced by the extant monuments of architecture. 02010406

    7. Orthodox churches were not only a cult, but to a large extent and public buildings. In the ornate temples huge halls committed folk religious ceremonies and receptions princes associated with important events in the life of the state. Church because of their moral influence became custodians of private treasures. Business transactions made on faith, supported by church authority. Russian trade since ancient times was in close connection with the church. In cathedrals store important documents related to the field of foreign and domestic trade. Under the Charter of Vladimir Church became the guardian of weights and measures. Any business, commercial and private, was in charge of the Commercial Court of three representatives - from tysyatskogo zhitih or wealthy citizens and two wardens trading and living hundreds. 02010407

    8. Russian merchants had to follow moral rules, which read:

    02010408


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    Churchbuilding as entrepreneurial activity

    1. In Kiev, in the era of Yaroslav special intensity reaches the church building as a form of entrepreneurship. Vladimir's son creates a new Kremlin to Hagia Sophia Irininskaya and St. George's Church in the center of the Kremlin, with new stone city walls and the Golden Gate. Centers of monumental architecture in the X-XI centuries. become Chernigov, Polotsk, Novgorod, Pskov and other cities doudelny period. Sharp contrast with the severe simplicity of exterior walls of Russian churches were the wealth and splendor of interior finishes: marble, gold, tiles, mosaics, frescoes. Preserved chronicles certificate front of the cathedral for the festivities of the palaces with Gridnitsa accommodates numerous retinue of Prince, city Kremlin citadel with monumental walls and gates topped Gate Church. 02010501

    2. Construction companies in ancient warriors wore name, gang, cooperatives and served each specific princely court. Masters, architects and sculptors temples carvers were called cunning, inventors and owners of complex design secrets. Number of business cooperatives were small. Thus, in XI. there was only one gang - in Kiev. At the end of the XI century there was a second - in Pereyaslavl, the third - in Chernihiv, later several artisanal are working in Novgorod. 02010502

    3. With Eastern Orthodoxy to Russia, the Rurikian empire penetrates Greek education, as well as legislation, writing, school. Receive special honor crafts: work in gold, icons, church murals. Church, masterfully constructed, covered with gold, with icons strewn with pearls, with all sorts Uzorochie, admired Orthodox Christians taking a new religion with faith healing. Although ancient Russia, according to VO Kliuchevskoi (1841 - 1911), was not at the height of Orthodoxy, but never ceased to strive to achieve common belief. 02010503

    4. Every civilization, in essence, there is a desire to replace the dominance of imagination domination of reason. Vertices entrepreneurial achievements in this way become a plow and an ax, the Novgorod Kremlin and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, chronicles and ancient monasteries, and home ikon Zhivonachalnoy Trinity domnitsy Slavs. 02010504


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    Commercial codex of capital

    10. Smithy. Front side of annales, 16th century
    11. Clock casting in Tver. Front side of annales, 16th century

    1. During the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, Kiev Rus by the level of culture in Europe was significant power. During this period there was "Russian Truth", in part - as a codification of customary instinctive expression of those views and folk psychology, which was in the old society, partly - the legal protection of persons and property. 02010603

    2. Liberal view of property - opened me, me purchased - at the dawn of Russian history has been replaced by the rule of hereditary monopoly of land and water, the right to which the princes got in the offspring of Saint Vladimir, turning from paid guards in military- police rulers Russian lands. 02010604

    3. "Russian Truth", which had not only legal, but also socio- economic importance and called VO Kliuchevsky Commercial Code capital reflected the civil society of the period. This document does not mention the death penalty; vendetta replaced monetary vira (fine). By the principle of financial compensation ("hryvnia for hryvnia" rather than "a tooth for a tooth") and provided for the payment of damages. 02010605

    4. In the initial period of "Russian Truth" was formed kunnaya or UAH monetary system, which was treated as a purely Russian, and of foreign coins, mainly dirhams, dinars drachmas, rather than fur fur-bearing animals. Since the beginning of the XI century, Due to the depletion of oriental silver, the main foreign trade relations of Russia turning to the West, and the main imported goods again becomes a silver coin. It was believed that in this country no gold and silver exists. 02010606

    5. In "Russian Truth" are the following items of monetary concepts: Livestock and Coons - to refer to money in general, the hryvnia, nogata, Kuna, cut, and veveritsa Vaxjo - to refer to units of payment. Name of money in general, cattle led to the conclusion that there is no time as money really appealed Livestock - Pets. Expressed quite plausible view that the era of "Russian Truth" is a relic of the term and is likely to ascend to the Germanic "scatta" and - money. 02010607

    6. Hryvnia concept was used as the name of the unit of weight (Hryvnia gold, silver hryvnia) and as currency (Hryvnia kun). Ancient silver hryvnia was a direct ancestor of modern Russian pound and served as a generalization of the monetary systems of the various principalities. Hryvnia "Truth" contained 46.79 grams of pure silver. At one hryvnia Coons thought Nogat 20 or 25 kuna, or 50 cut. In all the lists of "Russian Truth" hryvnia equivalent by taxi one ox, or 10 calves, or 20 sheep. When Yaroslav the Wise started the construction of the St. George Church in Kiev (about 1051), he declared in the shambles that every doer (craftsman) gets for work on nogata day. For nogata in those days you could buy a sheep [81, 30-33]. 02010608

    7. Earnings one day, as we see, it was possible to feed themselves with the family for a week. For almost four centuries, from Yaroslav the Wise to Dmitry Donskoy (1350-1389), a set of laws " Russian Truth" changed; remained unchanged, its structure consists of three sections: 1. Criminal laws. 2. Civil laws (On debt, inheritance, O slaves, O employees). 3. Proceedings. 02010609

    8. Highest imposed surcharges should be imposed for damages or infringement of proprietary rights. If the property is not contrary to law and justice, the law and justice should govern and protect property. Here, for example, criminal article: 02010610

    9. "Who spoilage tickle anyone cattle sale (fee) and 12 hryvnia hryvnia lesson in filth. 02010611

    10. Who perervet rope superiority in sales 3 hryvnia, and the offended Hryvnia kuna. 02010612

    11. Who pluck board or ruin it, shoveled Mezhuyev bortnuyu, stocks Mezhuyev tral blocked the fence Mezhuyev servants, felled tree Mezhnev sales 12 hryvnia. " 02010613

    12. A similar magnitude of the penalty - 12 hryvnia - was imposed, for example, for a stolen slave. But for theft hook - 8 kuna rook - 60 kuna plow - strug, marine rook - 3 hryvnia: shipbuilding was developed industry ancient. 02010614

    13. Theft of livestock more severely if the cattle stolen from a shed and stand than in the case of theft from a field or meadow. 02010615

    14. The term "crime" unknown antiquity. Instead, it uses the expression: offense (this murder, and debt default), litter, misery, blazed. 02010616

    15. Russian society is not aware of free labor and employment relations. As work in this period was cheap and capital is extremely rare, the latter demanded high interest rates. Usury (trade money loan) was a very ancient form of entrepreneurship in Russia. "Russian Truth" esteemed legal interest on 10 kuna on the hryvnia. Since 25 kuna were hryvnia, the legal interest was 40 per 100. With interest were given not only money, but copper instruct prisype in corn, cattle in the offspring [59, 42-43]. 02010617

    16. The loan was provided by the debtor's personal freedom. In case of failure, he became a slave bonded lender. In connection with this mass of free farmers was attached to the land as serfs or purchase. 02010618

    17. Responsibility for the loss of foreign merchant or commodity money varies depending on whether there was such misery from God or the fault of the merchant. Who took, say, goods and money and lost their credit due to shipwreck enemies attack or fire, was not subject to the usual methods for the time penalty - for sale into slavery or violence on the part of creditors, but as a victim in the will of God was exempt from liability. 02010619

    18. Slave in "Russian Truth" worshiped:

    02010620

    19. Who undertook to work for another of the salary portion or bread, he was revered not as a slave, and purchased, or employee. Kupa - grain, livestock, money borrowed. Zakupnichestvo arise from loan agreements as a result of private law, followed by the possibility of converting to purchase zakladnikov servant, slave, chelyadintsa. 02010621

    20. When the peasant lost cattle, the former owner was made landless and he had no choice but to go to purchase either slaves. 02010622

    21. However, the contempt for physical labor of the people do not exist: it seemed to be incompatible with the dignity of a free man firstborn. 02010623

    22. "Russian Truth" makes no mention of land ownership: land belonged to the community and then had no exchange value, and therefore not subject to sale and exchange. But the law protects every possession, every land grab space on which were placed signs. 02010624

    23. Text "Russian Truth", undergoing some changes in accordance with the further socio-economic development of lands and principalities, included in the legal collections XIII-XV centuries. (in the Pilot, "Meryl Righteous", etc.). 02010625


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    Entrepreneurship resistivity-veche period pre-Mongol Russia

    01 Prev chapter
    0203 Golden Horde period
    0204 Entrepreneurship in the late fifteenth-century
    03 Next chapter

    1. Resistivity-Veche period (XII-XIII cc.) or principalities era - this time the collapse of the Kiev state, reached in XI. peak of its power. After Vladimir Monomakh imperial unification of the tribes and the land became mechanical, non-economic, and sometimes forced. 02020001


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    New commercial routes

    1. The struggle for the independence of Veliky Novgorod was completed by the middle of the XII century education Novgorod republic with boyars' veche government-earth possesses colonies valuable fish farms and forests. Novgorod is located on a convenient waterway exit from the lake Ilmen Volkhov, and at the junction with the land roads to the west and east, could control the trade routes from the Baltic Sea to Russia and the East. 02020101

    2. Significant role in the decay of the Kiev state and strengthening of the Vladimir- Suzdal principality played establishment of a direct path from Byzantium to Genoa, Venice and the southern ports of France on the Mediterranean Sea. Route from the Vikings to the Greeks, who owned Kiev lost its former importance. There is a new and very important trade route, which runs from the eastern civilizations, the Caucasus and Central Asia, the territory of Vladimir-Suzdal principality, through Novgorod and other centers of Russia in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries. Vladimir-Suzdal principality held in their hands the trade node communications from the East to all corners of Russia and further west. 02020102


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    Princely power and taxes

    1. Strengthened old and new urban centers of the city - the kings, shopping, famous Europe Mr. Novgorod and Pskov, the capital of the principality - Vladimir growing Polotsk, Vitebsk, Vladimir - Volynskii, Galich, Rostov, Moscow, Smolensk and Chernigov ancient. Continuing rivalry with Constantinople and Kiev. In cities formed veche management with the right of elected representatives to address the major issues and trade legislation. 02020201

    2. Income from their estates princes received, like other major private owners. But this income princes did not distinguish from the income received by them from the population as authorities - in the form of fees, direct and indirect taxes (taxes). Taxes payable on products in high demand on the European market (honey, fur, grain, Coons). In addition to direct fees, and chronicles mention a popular service like tinker - the obligation to deliver the prince of the population, officials and messengers carts with conductors or rowers. 02020202

    3. Subordinate his territory (and they have changed over time and were given the names of lands, principalities, townships, counties, paternal) Prince rode to produce ships and collecting tribute. Similar kind collection called Polyudov, he was accompanied by gifts and honors. From this custom was avital welcome with bread and salt. The term people in ancient Russia in one of its meanings was synonymous with the state [52 435]. Hence polyude could have value as a trip to the state with public affairs and as the earliest, embryonic form of manifestation of the supreme ownership of the land. 02020203

    4. Gift or honors gradually transformed from a voluntary offering farmers communes in the mandatory collection of a certain size. Farmers themselves in the harsh climate and unstable harvests had only the necessary minimum of the total social product. Lifestyle of the population of the historic core was formed in Russia for centuries as a process survival. 02020204

    5. Vladimir Monomakh, Grand Prince of Kiev in 1113 and the most prominent businessman resistivity-veche period in his "Instructions" called sons not only to strengthen the unity of the Russian land, tame arbitrariness moneylenders and control belonged to the Grand Duke trade route from the Vikings to the Greeks, but also attached great importance to concerns about industry, adopting hunting and fishing under the administration of justice. 02020205

    6. "Instructions" Monomakh divided into four parts: the relationship between man and God, relations between government and citizens, relation of man to himself and his home, a person's relations towards other people. 02020206

    7. Turning from the creation to the creator, historians note that Vladimir Monomakh always tried to subordinate personal passions to the ideas of justice, who developed the then society. He did not try to take the throne until Kiev morally compelled him to come to Kiev and to establish peace after the destruction and plunder. In the preceding reign trade and monopoly managed to seize Jews moneylenders - Busting citizens exorbitant because the then scarcity of money. Vladimir sought to define the limits of growth, but considered indecent punishment moneylenders admitted former princes [79, 373]. Monomakh justice established extortion and arbitrary moneylenders put an end to. 02020207

    8. Agreements with the princes of the people, and the princes with paramilitary princely retinue determined resistance regulations and decisions of the Chambers of military service and the awards for it. Contracts between the princes concerned problems of accepting the state of or war or peace, as well as conducting community master's coffers. 02020208

    9. Princes as big farmers and landowners who possessed intact areas cultivated craft work among people, to some extent dependent on them. Wages made ​​in cash and in kind - reward canvases, Byzantine fabrics. 02020209


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    The Republic of Novgorod

    1. The relief of the Caucus of Veliky Novgorod was historically the most significant, because it meant the beginning of the democratic- national, as opposed to the legal aristocratic life perceived in Kiev from Byzantium and the West. Candlelight participants were three free estates: boyars, wealthy merchants and black people - artisans, merchants, farmers. In the first half of the XII century Novgorod caucus veche estates get one after the other all their rights, including the right to elect the prince, performing the role of an impartial conciliator of parties. For princes it was a great test. In the XII century, Novgorod governed by about 30 rulers [7; 217]. Prince had to rule the city according to the established custom (on duty). Custom orders included:

    02020301

    12. Russian principalities in the turn of 1200 and 1300 years:
    1. Border of Rus before the era of Golden Hord
    2. The supposed continental borders of the counties of Rus
    3. Russian territories conquered by neighbouring peoples in XII century and beginning of XIII century
    4. Commercial trafic routes

    2. Availability free communities for urban population was the main prerequisite for the development of Western European cities, so also characteristic of veche period in pre-Mongol Russia. Due to the absence of the feudal system in Russia rural and urban populations were equally free. Near towns, appeared Posadas (permanent settlements outside the city) and settlements (suburbs) of agricultural and commercial market people. 02020303

    3. At the turn of the XI - XII centuries in the Republic of Novgorod, a system of patrimonial land tenure appears and private ownership of land where before was Veche corporate ownership. The most common form of land ownership in this period was the system where the largest feudal barony ruled on various grounds such as: the prince, monastic, Boyar, birth, bought, bestowed. Supreme owner of all land was considered the feudal prince of the principality, which was confirmed already in the princes decree of Lyubech Congress (1097): each principal holding his paternal vote. The right of free owner disposal in land ownership (sell, exchange, mortgage, give, bequeath) was formulated by a number of attributes. Urban knights' manor were converted into processing centers of agricultural and commercial products estates, sometimes located at a considerable distance from Novgorod. Condition for export of patrimonial products in foreign markets was a counter flow of imports, primarily in the form of craft materials, a reason why urban knights manors were converted into centers of various handicraft production. 02020304

    4. Property right of peasants on their home, livestock and land was only asserted by universal custom, rather than law. 02020305

    5. Entrepreneur-colonists, pioneer settlers from Veliky Novgorod, laid the foundation of many cities in the Urals, in the Kama, in Pomerania, guided, as a rule by direct experience, origin of which was the mere spiritually clean atmosphere for life - along the rivers. 02020306

    13. Novgorod. Popular prints. The first half of the XVIII century

    6. Successful industrial colonization in the XII century mainly on the Vyatka River contributed to the development of the ore base in the Urals, fisheries and marine animal fur, valuable fish species, the development of salt springs Great Perm. Vyatka Nikulitse were built in 1174, Kotelnich in 1181 in the XIII century Novgorod entrepreneurial energy is directed to the north, where there are great Ustiug (1218), Vologda (1264), Cole (1264) and finally Holmogory (1353). Development of new lands were engaged in a bold industrialist-daring trader who lived not only in the interests of reality, but also the development of the sciences, arts and architecture Veliky Novgorod. 02020308

    7. In the XII century, construction cooperatives continued to exist and to build churches in the largest, the capital cities of Kiev, Vladimir, Polotsk, Smolensk, Galich. 02020309

    8. After the disintegration of Kiev Rus at the end of the XII century in Novgorod were built small temples showing utmost simplicity and strained cuboidal masses in which there is a huge force. Novgorod masters second half of XII - beginning of XIII century church buildings erected on the orders of the boyars, church hierarchs and only occasionally by Prince. Increased mass and standardization in this kind of business, increasing productivity, without compromising the quality of construction and refinement of architectural forms. 02020310

    9. In free Novgorod Russia opened worldwide. Trade visitors flowed here from all over Europe and the Mediterranean, and the commerce of Novgorod people floated down the rivers to the south, southeast and reached peoples who lived around the Black and Caspian seas, in the Volga, in the Baltic. Even Icelandic sagas filled with tales of great wealth and power Holmgrada [7, 215.]. Of Russian lands in Novgorod flowed trade items: fruit of farming, hunting, fishing, beekeeping, handicrafts. 02020311

    10. Novgorod, the Great as an entrepreneurial center had a vast territory from Sumy tenements in the White Sea to the watershed of the Western Dvina and Ilmeny rivers. Lake Ilmen is known to play a very important role in the great waterway from northwestern to southeastern Europe (from the Vikings to the Greeks and Saracens). Holding this way, the initial domestic trade of Novgorod, keeping this route gained the best profit mainly in southern Russia. Novgorod merchants (think only of epic Sadko) scattered in different cities of Chernigov to Volyn, Kiev had a special church of St. Michael, known as the shrine of Novgorod. One of the most desirable items from the Novgorod barter was furs: sable, ermine, foxes, black coons and fish teeth. On the part of southern Russia trade article was primarily bread, without which import from outside the barren earth of Novgorod could not exist. From Byzantium to the north went gold, wine, vegetables and tissues, and from Europe through the Baltic Sea cloth, wine, spices, jewels. For them it was necessary to provide "Goths" and "Germans" and the northern sea products: blubber, ivory, furs, salt, and wax. Slavic Veliky Novgorod meant peaceful trade and industrialized European interpreter between the Hanseatic League and the eastern foreigners, for the glorious settlers of Novgorod, for example, wealthy guests Stroganoff, opened the gates too wide from Urals to Siberia in Asia [60, 79], putting on the tracks gostby bargainings, their graveyards, suburbs, ranks of cities. 02020312

    11. The basis of this circular bargaining served northern fishing, mining, Boyar colonization of Pomerania (so was called collectively the White Sea coast and valleys of rivers flowing into the White Sea). Novgorod settled in the vast spaces, letting the northern river shores of the White Sea to the Urals its entrepreneurial energy, boldness, courage and capital. By far the sea shores - Terek, Pomeranian, Obonezhie - penetrated well kitted out and equipped with everything necessary for a party of colonists founding the new fisheries or acquisition encampments for sea fishing. At convenient bays occurred knights fiefdoms, fishing villages with Russian population. Capitalist ruled was the homestead of Veliky Novgorod and was only interested in that distant land of his demesne in time and in sufficient quantity sent goods going to Novgorod markets. Settlements wore completely industrial character. North quickly became vital to Novgorod, supplying him with not only furs, salt, fish, freshwater pearls, but also bog iron ore in bloom (bloom - fresh lump of cast iron digested going under the huge water, bloomery hammer for the cake, and forging stripe processing and other hardware). 02020313

    12. Slavic-Russian movement in the notheast was free and immediate. Entrepreneurial spirit was our ancestral property of the northern tribes. Novgorod Slavs formed an alliance with the Finnish tribes - Chudy, by the entire, Merey, Ziryanov and Perm. 02020314


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    Fur trade

    1. In the views of the medieval Arab geographers northern areas of the European part of Russia were ancient sea of darkness, the kingdom of snow, ice and eternal darkness, where, according to legend, Alexander the Great drove Lukomorie peoples, in the mountains, setting the pommel sea. Throughout the East of the country famous for fur gloom. Zobeida itself, beloved wife of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid (766-809 or 763), introduced the custom of wearing fur, lined with sable gloom of the country of mist 02020401

    2. Arab travelers in XII. left description of ancient skis, one of the main means of transportation in the North: 02020402

    3. "The road to them is on the ground, on which the snow never melts, and people make boards for the legs and shave them. And front end of such boards is raised above the ground, in the middle of the board they place a foot hole for walking with it, a strong leather straps are used to tie it to the legs. Skiing is inciting people of north to use sable skin under the skies, not knowing that this sable - fur is welcome to kings, queens and patriarchs. But if this were only fiction, no one would go there " - says Arab geographer and shows that there penetrate only the rich merchants, who can affort for one hundred or so drawers of carts loaded with edible food, beverages and wood. Guides in this land are the dogs. Merchant feeds dogs before people. 02020403

    4. The main item for sale on the East and West was furs - sable, ermine, ferrets, weasels, martens, foxes, squirrels, beavers, rabbits and goats. Fur was imported in Isfahan, Istanbul, Venice, Hamburg, London, Paris. In the "Romance of Troy" poet of XII century Benoit de Sainte-Mora described the French court lady outfit: 02020404

    5. "Out of the blue purple, streaked with gold, rich and perfectly stitched was her tunic trimmed with ermine and sable mantle of cloth from overseas, and these clothes cost seven measures of pure gold." 02020405

    6. Chambers of the great Chinese Kublai Khan, according to Marco Polo (c. 1254-1324), were covered fur - king's ermine and sable. Good sable fur coat for men was worth two thousand Byzantium (Byzantium - Byzantine coin of pure gold), and lighter - a thousand. In India, for ermine skins was paid a thousand dinars (one dinar contained 4.25 grams of gold). 02020406

    7. The fur trade in the East was carried out in this period on two ways. Overland route led to Yaik continuing through Ustyurt in Khorezm. Another way to go down, along the river Volga and through the courts of Bulgarian Volga to Bulgars. Trade routes converged to the Bulgar capital city located near the confluence of the Volga and Kama. It was in this bustling city, one of the most important centers in the Great Volga Way, Arab merchants provided basic information about ancient times. From the mouth of the Volga was a sea route along the western shore of the Caspian Sea and the city of Khorasan, Tabaristan. Russian merchants with their wares sometimes reached Baghdad itself. Our ancestors passed trade characteristic for the prestige classes of Muslim world. Acquisition - a religious duty for every Muslim - one of the precepts of God's messenger Muhammed (ok. 570 -632). - Trade is the most excellent means of living and brings good fortune if you follow piety and the principle of mutual benefit, and not extortion and hostility. Clades Arab coins are found from VII - IX centuries literally strewn on the island of Gotland, the eastern and southern shores of the Baltic Sea. 02020407

    8. In the writings of the eastern writers are repeatedly encountered allegations that the Russians are skillful traders, that for furs were paid usually silver: coins, precious utensils, knives. 02020408

    9. In most Russian settlements were developed such crafts as spinning, weaving, pottery, iron and steel production. In the "Lay" swords Haraluzhnye mentioned that Roman soldiers were armed Mstislavovitch. These swords or metal for them were made in the vicinity of the village of Volyn Haralug, the largest center of ferrous metallurgy of the Scythian period to the Middle Ages. 02020409

    10. Grain from the middle of XIII century our ancestors milled in windmills. 02020410


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    First chronicles on travels

    1. At the beginning of XII c. was born the genre of travel accounts, of some Russian people traveling to the Middle East, the Caucasus, to Europe, Central Asia, the Caspian Sea and the Urals. First listed in the Chronicle, became famous journey of Princess Olga to Constantinople (957). At the same period traveled extensively rhetorician and physician of Grand Prince Vladimir I John Polotsk to study different religions. Authors of the period of XI -XIII centuries are mostly church leaders, igumens Daniel and Anthony, but the manuscript of Metropolitan of Kiev John (XI cent.) indicates that also Russian merchants traveled on business to the pogany areas. This kind of travels proved risky: "In a voyage our ship was attacked by Catalan robbers who jumped on the ship as wild beasts. Dissected our Captain into pieces and thrown into the sea. Took all my possessions but me, poorly clothed in homespun coat, left alive" [39, 314]. 02020501

    2. Apostle Andrew told us the chronicle evidence about people who lived in Novgorod, about their customs, and he truly marveled at them: "I saw wooden bath, which they boost hot, then undress naked, shed on sour kvass, and take young twigs and beat themselves until barely alive. Then pour cool water on themselves and get revived and alive. This they are doing all the days, nobody is tormenting them, they torture but themselves. And as a matter, they are just washing themselves, not tormenting. [39; 201]. 02020502


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    Hanse union

    1. Trade of European cities with Novgorod and other cities of medieval Russia was accomplished by Hanseatic League, an international merchant guild, which is composed of up to 150 Nordic cities (Pomeranian, Vendian, Prussian, Westphalian, Dutch, Livonian). Hansa was not merchants' association but union of free trading cities, whose representatives gathered at the Diet and decided there together all the important questions related to their trade with the inhabitants of the countries located in the North and Baltic Seas. Field activities of Hansa were with England, Flanders and Brabant, the Scandinavian states, Novgorod, Pskov and northwestern Russian city centers and principalities - Smolensk, Vitebsk, Polotsk, Vladimir. 02020601

    2. Hansa was not an economic union, but political and military alliance (for protection of trade expeditions, trading posts, and monopoly privileges, commercial law and modes, etc.) with a warehouse in Bergen and the Treasury in Visby. Hanseatic merchants traded products in Scandinavia, all coastal lands of the Baltic Sea and Muscovy, having a monopoly on intermediary trade between Europe and Novgorod. Major cities of the Union were Lübeck, Cologne, Brunswick and Danzig, and the main factories were in Novgorod, London, Bruges and Bergen. An idea of the wealth of Hansa can be obtained regarding the numerous and expensive churches, say, in the city of Lübeck. 02020602

    3. With regard to the dating of trade relations of Novgorod and its suburbs - Pskov and Staraya Rus with European cities, they originated from the XI century, and at the end of the XII century and from that time appears the first treaty between Novgorod and the Germans, who were importing to Novgorod malt, flour, bread, dried fruit, herring and of the red goods: cloth, damask matter, tanned skin, of haberdashery: needles, beads, parchment, gloves, scallops, wine and beer [81, 463]. By this time the true charter of Emperor Frederick I Lubeck (1188) permitting free trade in this city for Russian, Goths, Normans and Eastern entrepreneurs. In the history of Novgorod relations with the Germans until the end of the XIV century, at least ten contracts are known, three of which made Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich, the father of Alexander Nevsky. 02020603

    4. In Novgorod in XII. as community centers arise victuals neighborhood: Gothic courtyard - factory Swedish and Dutch merchants, which included accommodation, hotels, barns for goods, a stone observation tower, the church of St. Olaf and the German court - a factory of Hanseatic merchants in the same composition of buildings, with the addition of the cemetery [20 145]. 02020604

    5. Later active role in trade with Novgorod and other northwestern regions of Russia occupy Livonian cities on the Baltic Sea - Dorpat, Riga and Revel. In Novgorod, apparently, less waste of effort and money on war was used than on the restless south, it actively developed crafts, growing trade with neighbors near and far, continuing was the process of wealth creation and development of new territories. 02020605

    6. Do not exaggerate the active character of Russian trade with the Arab East and Western Europe. Not being in the proper sense of the word a maritime republic Novgorod could hardly conduct extensive trade by sea, although convoys of Novgorod since the time of the epic Sadko were equipped on their own capital, own heads and hands. Prominent role in international trade and the road acquired from Vladimir - Volyn the Western Bug, further Lithuania or in Northern Poland, Magdeburg and the Baltic Hanseatic cities. In the XII century Carpathian salt was sold in Poland. Of Galicia, Volyn Rus took out the bread, wax, furs, crafts, which strengthened ties with the West Slavic culture. 02020606


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    Quarrels and markets of ancient Russian cities

    1. Trade was conducted mostly by cooperatives - the companies that owned a common courtyard - a warehouse, gridnitsy - ample ward for meetings. Companies had large scales to check the goods and small - weighing cash bars. Artel court was headed by elected judge. Entry into the trading community was conditioned by 50 hryvnia mandatory contribution and donation to the temple 30 hryvnia. With that money you could buy a cow herd of 80 head. 02020701

    2. In the context of XI-XII centuries merchants used mainly waterways. This necessitated a considerable number of ships and boats of various caliber and type, served not only trade, but also for military purposes. In Byzantine campaigns involving several thousand ships, tanned in Russia qualified carpenters, shipbuilders. Princes as big businessmen and landowners cultivated craft work. Craftsmen, carpenters were producing war materials such as wooden visors, plank armors, bows. 02020702

    3. It is known that inhabitants of Novgorod, not without a smile, are called carpenters. In the city there was the end of the carpenters, whose residents performed the construction of churches and town improvement (paving streets and market-place, the construction and repair of bridges, repair of fences and urban shrines, etc.). 02020703

    4. Trade linked Novgorod with close ties to all the Rus and promoted the unification of the principalities. Contract with neighbors allowed to keep peace in the long term. 02020704

    5. Development of foreign trade activity partly restrained attitude of the fathers of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Western European (Catholic) civilization. Looks of ancient dogmatists were composed under the influence of Byzantine polemical writings and passed into popular consideration. 02020705

    6. Theodosius of the Caves, one of the founders of Kiev-Pechersk monastery, of which he was abbot from 1062 to 1074, in his letter to Izyaslav Yaroslavovich (1024-1078), Grand Prince of Kiev, and one of the authors of "Pravda of Yaroslav", explains it: 02020706

    7. "Latin faith should beware not to keep their customs, communions they did not take, and do not listen to what they said, because they err in faith and unclean living... as Christians can not give their daughters in marriage to them, nor take their daughters as wives, not fraternize with them, nor kumitsya not kiss them, and not eat with them and drink from the same dish" [51, 13]. 02020707

    8. Extremely sharp condemnation of the Latin West, borrowed from Byzantine sources spirited intolerance promoted isolation, alienation, the convert Russia from the European Christian nations. 02020708

    9. Aversion to the lives of others accompanied the consecration of national customs and habits coming from paganism and alien to Christianity. Alreadh in the church charter of Yaroslav it was established: Whoever cuts hairs or beard, must pay to the Metropolitan - 12 hryvnia, and accept the prince's punishment. 02020709

    10. In Russia in terms of the specific fragmentation (city and surrounding rural districts) local and inter-regional markets were formed. In the central Russian lands one after the other new towns: Suzdal (1023), Vladimir (1116), Torzhok (1139), Mikulin (1144), Tver (1195), Rzhev, Ostashkov and Zubtsev - in the beginning of the XIII century Ancient cities near Moscow (Dmitrov, Kolomna), as well as Moscow itself, appeared in the period from 1147 to the beginning of the second half of the XIII century. Between 1212 and 1223 were founded Kostroma and Nizhny Novgorod. 02020710

    11. In the markets of ancient Russian cities, along with professional merchants, numerous small traders and craftsmen are selling pottery, wooden barrels, cloth, leather shoes, knives, axes, door locks, glass products. The urban market exchange involving also residents of ancient villages with the products of agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry industries, rural crafts, especially the blacksmith and wheelmakers. In the markets of their products sold and the monastic artisans. 02020711

    12. Leading articles on Russian exports remained furs, leather, wax, honey, cloth, in exchange for which the importation of precious non-ferrous metals, cloth, silk, wine, tropical fruits and spices. 02020712

    13. Specific discord and strife between Ruric not conducive to the development of commercial and industrial population, but to a certain extent spared big cities, emptying mainly villages and hamlets. In the period 1155-1237 only two decades Russia was certainly calm [90, 390]. In 1169 the troops of Andrew Bogolyubski was conquered and sacked Kiev. 02020713

    14. Another case that specific quarrels between princes were taken by people without involvement into the matter, not taking to heart their accounts with each other. The aim of these quarrels was live goods in the slave trade, so the Russian people did not honor these quarrels in any of their songs, legends or bylina. Remained almost the only bitter row: Novgorod sold to people of Suzdal sheep three times cheaper. 02020714

    15. Before the onslaught of the Golden Horde politically fragmented Rus overtook the famine years, the bill of these indicates that for each 11 years there was one year of famine. By 1230 the chronicler draws this picture: "What can I say to utter about this terrible year, when it was sent to us as God's punishment! Ordinary living people slaughtered and ate others; eating horsemeat, dogmeat, cats, moss, grass snakes, pine bark, leaf, who invented that. And some evil people began to burn good people at home, sensing somewhere rye, and plundered their possessions. Brother, father son, mother daughter did not want to break off a piece of bread; there was no mercy between us, but there was sorrow and grief. Fathers and mothers sold children into slavery for bread" [81; 464-466]. 02020715

    16. Result of a struggle between two principles - zemsky (veche) and princely - was the fall of the autonomy of cities, most tragically manifested itself in the subsequent history of Novgorod and Pskov. 02020716

    17. It seems to be a correct conclusion about the role of democracy in Novgorod, which reduces to the fact that in this land of "Russian people thought of freedom, loved her strongly and passionately, long managed to protect her, but not before thought of the need for strict order to rule of law, to protect it at the face of strict forms of law and the court, in a word, to respect human dignity in itself" [89, 11]. 02020717


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    Golden Horde period

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    1. Third period - the reign of the Golden Horde or the Mongol-Tatar yoke - is measured from the middle of the XIII century until 1480, the full release of the Russian lands from paying tribute to the Horde and the final internal unification of Russian lands. 02030001

    2. This period preceded the Crusades (1096-1270) to the Middle East, the looting of Constantinople (1204) and the fall of the Byzantine Empire, resulting in a trade route from the Vikings to the Greeks lost its meaning. Economic losses have contributed to the rise of a number of Kiev principalities of Central Russia, including Moscow. Interests separate principalities lost their unity. 02030002


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    Great desolation

    1. Characteristic evaluation of collision of two civilizations - agricultural, settled and nomadic, horse camp - was expressed so "By breaking the fractured Rus with rapid onslaught, they repopulate it like locusts, sucking juices of still economically poor country" [89, 15]. 02030101

    2. In the spring of 1389, Metropolitan Pimen with Protopopov, Archdeacon, monks and servants set out on a voyage to Constantinople. When they floated down the river Don, terrible desolation was seen everywhere, and on the shores nothing was visible: no towns or villages. "And once in ancient times there were beautiful city and a very well appointed place - Metropolitan Pimen went to Constantinople to the patriarch for the third time - now everything is ruined and not populated. Never do you see a person, only desolation and a manifold of beasts. Great desolation" [39 287]. 02030102


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    Alexander Nevsky

    1. Using the time of pogrom in northeastern and southern lands Batu pope in 1240 declared a crusade on the Russian land. Attempt to seize the northern lands of Russia undertook during this period, German, Swedish and Danish feudal lords. Since XIII century Russia was in the grip of the two fronts. Alexander Nevsky (1220-1263) defeated Swedish and German knights and made for more than 250 years Pskov restrain their onslaught on the east. 02030201

    2. In the socio-economic, and cultural respects, this period of limited freedom was most unfavorable. It meant suspending of lively trading activity in Kiev Rus. Trade settlements, especially Jewish, survived only in Volhynia and Galicia. 02030202

    3. Russia not only lost its trading positions in the areas of the Black Sea, Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Galicia, the Volga region, Central Asia, but also completely lost four centuries of free institutions, which were used by Slavic society before the outbreak of the terrible hurricane. 02030203

    4. One of the worst effects of predation and anarchy was the sharp weakening of Russian cities. Invaders from the East, generally hostile cities, not only destroy them, but also led into captivity skilled urban artisans. Extermination and divestment as craft masters undermined the very foundation of material culture in the archaeological inventory disappeared many items common to the pre-Mongol era. 02030204

    5. In the difficult years of the Mongol yoke just north of Old Russia - new urban-land-Pskov - retained its independence and culture. Shrewd politician and an outstanding commander, Prince Alexander Nevsky was able to protect from attack Novgorod khans of the Golden Horde and subjected to cruel defeat the Swedish and German Knights of the Sword in Battles along the banks of the Neva (1240) and at Lake Peipus (1242). 02030205

    6. Veliky Novgorod in this era became the center of Russian business, the foundation of which were: exploitation of the richest wood crafts of Northern Russia, purchase of raw materials in the neighboring principalities for export to the Hanseatic cities and trade along the Volga. Novgorod merchants already in 1265 had clerks and permanent shops in the capital of the Golden Horde - Sarai, where they sold furs, lead, tin, fabric, cloth, locksmithing, walrus tusks. Horde brought bread, spices, dried fruits, herbs, silk and satin fabrics, gems, jewelry, pearls, beads [97, 34]. 02030206

    7. But also in these zones and cities, which the destruction did not reach, large sums were required as payments to Orda, and to the expenses of the Grand Duke of Moscow and of the Metropolitan. 02030207


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    The rise of Moscow

    1. Conquerors demanded tribute request, food, drink, gifts, honor, pochestie, funeral, bows, table, entry, tramsport, fares, duties, in a word: took what they could and when they could. Feudal lords began to depend not on the Chambers and Horde. Prince Yury Dolgoruky (?-1157) to elect his residence to Moscow, where Candlelight never was. Avaricious conquerors, trying to drain strength of the Russian people by inciting princely in fighting, announced that the title of Grand Duke receives the ruler who gives the largest remuneration. 02030301

    2. By the beginning of the XIV century the economic arena extends and Moscow principality becomes the new unification center of Russian lands. The statement of NM Karamzin that Moscow owes its greatness to the khans, is only partly true. Moscow princes realized the importance of unifying the title and gave the Horde really larger tribute at the same time overcoming the patrimonial share and separatism and putting on their banner the idea of a single nation-state and the liberation from the yoke of the Golden Horde. Old center Horde of Russia - Vladimir - after the capture of the trade route from the east gradually gives way to Moscow, where location at the intersection of trade and river routes connects Russian land economically. As the anchor of salvation from the yoke of external and the internal disorder becomes Moscow idea of autocracy. During the rule of Dmitry Donskoy Moscow Kremlin was first enclosed by stone walls, and after the Battle of Kulikovo (1380), when the son of Dmitry Donskoy, Yuri Zvenigorod was the ruler, extensive construction activity occurred. 02030302

    3. From olden times monastries had been gathering places for people in Russia, monastries also fulfilled the function of banks. Characteristically, in the XIV century in clothes for priests and monks it was strictly forbidden to use outlandish items. In the monastery workshops Russian artisans used many herbs and plants in dyeing fabrics. Yellow color was obtained from chamomile, blue from cornflowers and nettle infusion attached to tissues green color. 02030303

    4. The conquerors did not interfere in the religious life of the people, but showed a certain tolerance, and the collection of tribute was given to Russian princes. Among the latter there was a scope for fighting: to oust the neighbor to get the collecting permission of the Horde. 02030304

    5. But the consequences of the invasion of the Golden Horde, and two centuries of slavery were not lost to Russian culture. Invasion, for example, boldly vintage fishing in manufacturing glazes, which were made of mosaic patterns, elegant jewelry, art glass. AS Pushkin (1799-1837) insightfully and accurately said: "Russia was defined by the high destiny... Her vast plains absorbed the Mongols and halted their advance at the very edge of Europe, the barbarians did not dare to leave behind their back the enslaved Russia and return to their steppes east. The resulting enlightenment was rescued ravaged and expiring Russia." In a footnote to these words Pushkin remarked, "but Europe in relation to Russia has always been as ignorant as they are ungrateful." Conquerors do not act as the Moors: they gave Russia nor algebra, nor Aristotle [59, 55]. 02030305

    6. Russian philosopher and engineer PA Florensky time of Muscovite Russia called time St. Sergius of Radonezhk and tied it to one of the greatest cultural disasters - the end of the Byzantine Empire. Ancient Russia kindles the flame of its culture directly from the sacred fire of the dying Byzantine, and Russian people, gaining statehood gets historical right to independence. Kulikovo Field was the awakening of Russia as a historic nation. In the second half of the XIV century clearly delineated economic revival of the Russian lands, and Muscovy in XV. interpreted by historians as a "huge feudal lords association, especially in view of favorable conditions has absorbed all the other " [55, Part 1, 23]. After the fall of Constantinople (1453) and the marriage of Ivan III (1440-1505), the niece of the last Byzantine emperor Sophia Palaeologus (1472) in the Russian state began to assert the idea of transferring the church-political significance of Constantinople to Moscow and the Moscow Grand Prince the inheritance rights and the power of the Byzantine emperors. 02030306

    7. Let us listen still to another view, expressed in the 1871 culture expert and writer N.I. Khlebnikov (1840-1880): "Tatar yoke was only the external reason that forced society to look at itself. If there were no Tatars, Lithuanians and Poles, when they could get connected, could have successfully played the role of Tatars in Russian history, ie force quit the system of division and introduce the unification. The disorder of the division system as a whole could be destroyed only by autocracy; and in turn, the extremes of this trend could only be weakened by the Slavic tribes living in need of freedom" [90, 402-404]. Could, but did not weaken. 02030307

    8. Moscow principality evolved through extensive territorial growth. Ivan Kalita (? - 1340), Dark Basil II (1415-1462) consistently attached to Moscow Meschera, Tarusa, Moore, Nizhny Novgorod, Suzdal, Kama, northern Ural region, Tver, Vyatka, Perm. Moscow made an end to the general national lack of unity. 02030308

    9. Particularly intense in this period developed the practice of usury and servitude connected to it, although the charging of interest in pre-Petrine was considered reprehensible and inconsistent with the standards of orthodox morality. 02030309

    10. A Venician merchant losaph Barbaro, who served in Russia in 1436-1452, was amazed about the scale of trade, abundance and cheapness of goods. "The abundance of bread and meat, - he wrote - you can imagine on how the meat was sold, because it did not happen on weight but at the ease of eye... In winter, pigs, cows and other cattle was dumped in ragged skins from carcasses. Solid as a rock, they were put on their feet and in such numbers that if anyone wanted to buy one day 200 carcasses, he could have got them" [70, 5]. 02030310

    11. Russia's foreign trade developed actively, dramatically increased the value of the trade route through the Baltic Sea. Vasily III (1479-1533) concluded a trade agreement with Denmark, according to which home-based factories were founded in Vologda, Kholmogorov, Yaroslavl. 02030311


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    Land tenure

    1. In the domestic market the most common form of land use during the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries becomes conditional tenure in which the land was given to a vassal for a fixed term (temporary until used, for life, to the conclusion of service, in hereditary possession until the family recedes) and under certain conditions (as a mercy, for the development of wastelands; conditional tenure). Land use within the peasant population represents a compromise between the community and the private ownership of the land. Ordinary peasant community had the right to gicy to a peasant temporarily or in perpetual urgency plots of communal land, to change, to buy or to receive as a gift new land, but the sale of communal land was limited. 02030401

    2. The land property (patrimony) of Nobility Moscow princes retain and ensure, striving since Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow from 1462, to extend the local land tenure system in which land was given to a person not in the property, but only for use on the service to the prince. The main ways of acquiring property were: sale, award, temporary by prescription. Charters in the XV. century stated the conditions under which land was transferred - with redemption or full ownership (in the future). Of the future limited ownership were stipulated that the person which has taken any piece of land, having erected on it buildings and ploughed farmland, was considered the owner of the site if it were used at least 4-5 years. 02030402

    3. Value possessed only those parcels of land that were sold or transferred together with those who handle them. The estate was divided into farmers: