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Paul Strathern:
Leibniz in an hour

MyeBooks 20180429-1716
Strathern-Leibniz-ajk.txt (* txt -> HTML)
1,550,94,fil,eng,20180217,20180219,5, Paul Strathern: Leibniz in an hour
20180217-20180219, 94 pages, 5* SalesInfo o eng

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1.YhteenvedotReviewsРезюме
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2.SisällysluetteloContentsСодержание
(1,2,3,4,5)
3.MuistiinpanotHighlightsПримечания
h
4.SanastoVocabularyСловарь
w
5.KirjanmerkitBookmarksЗакладки
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Yhteenvedot Reviews Резюме (Code: ###)

Paul Strathern: Leibniz in an hour

An outrageous book of an outrageous subject

Paul Strathern - Leibniz in an hour, 94 p.

I read the book at my mentor and a classmate Viljo's recommendation. He claimed Leibniz being the greatest of all philosophers.

I am immediately prepared to recognize him as the King of philosophers. Ok, the philosophy of monads. Of course, I can not say whether it is right or wrong, and maybe I did not fully understand every turn of it, but something like this must be the ultimate explanation of all existence. Behind the material there is metaphysics, time and place can not exist, only the imagination of them. But this is not the (only) reason, why I am ready to declare Leibniz the greatest. The other is, of course, that he has invented my most important work tool, the differential and integral calculations (with or without Newton).

Then, it is still a separate thing to announce this book of Strathern as an Outrageous Work in good sense as I mean it. On the last pages of the actual story, I just got the stop remark: "Your selection exceeds the copy limit set by the Publisher of this book." It ended my all too eager making notes. I do not really blame the publisher. Almost every page I copied long clips to the clipboard. I do not know, perhaps there is a certain general percentage of the total text as the limit to be respected in all eBooks, but before this I did not come across to it. Never before so much of the text did I pick up on the clipboard. I do not know whichever is more succulent, Stratner's text, unheedingly crossing the borders of conventional, or the same kind of border-crossing ideas and action of Leibniz. At least in practical action, Leibniz heavily overwhelms my favorite Schopenhauer.

With these remarks I feel obliged to confirm my assessment with five stars.

Возмутительная книга возмутительного сюжета

Пол Стратерн - Лейбниц через час, 94 стр.

Я прочитал книгу по рекомендацию своего наставника и одноклассника Вилхо. Он утверждал, что Лейбниц был величайшим из всех философов.

Я сразу же готов признать его королем философов. Хорошо, философия монадов. Конечно, я не могу сказать, правильно это или нет, и, может быть, я не полностью понял каждый ход этого, но что-то вроде этого должно быть окончательным объяснением всего существования. За материалом есть метафизика, время и место не могут существовать, только воображение их. Но это не единственная причина, почему я готов объявить Лейбница величайшим. Другое, конечно, что он изобрел мой самый важный инструмент работы, дифференциальные и интегральные вычисления (с Ньютоном или без него).

Потом еще одна вещь - объявить эту книгу Стратерна как возмутительную работу в хорошем смысле, поскольку я имею в виду ее. На последних страницах фактической истории Лейбница я вдруг получил замечание: «Ваш выбор превышает лимит копирования, установленный издателем этой книги». Это закончило мои заметки. Я действительно не виню издателя. Почти на каждой странице я копировал длинные клипы в буфер обмена. Я не знаю, возможно, есть определенный общий процент от общего текста как предел, который нужно уважать во всех электронных книгах, но до этого я не сталкивался с этим. Никогда раньше текст не был получен на экране. Я не знаю, какой из них более суккулентен, текст Стратнера, неистово пересекающий границы обычных, или такие же пересечения границ идеи и действия Лейбница. По крайней мере, в практических действиях Лейбниц сильно ошеломил моего любимого Шопенгауэра.

С этими замечаниями я чувствую себя обязанным подтвердить свою оценку пятью звездами.

Hulvaton kirja, hulvaton aihe

Paul Strathern - Leibniz in an hour, 94 s.

Kirjan luin mentorini ja luokkatoverini Viljon suosituksesta. Väitti Leibniziä filosofeista suurimmaksi.

Olen saman tien valmis tunnustamaan hänet Suurimmaksi Filosofiksi. Ok monadioppi, en tietenkään osaa sanoa onko oikea vai väärä enkä ehkä joka käännettä täysin ymmärtänyt mutta jotakin tuollaista tämän olevaisen täytyy olla. Materian takana on metafysiikkaa, aikaa ja paikkaa ei voi olla olemassa, vain kuvitelma niistä. Mutta tämä ei ole (ainoa) syy, jonka takia olen valmis julistamaan Leibnizin Filosofien kuninkaaksi. Toinen on tietenkin se että hän on keksinyt oman tärkeimmän työvälineeni differentiaali- ja integraalilaskennan (Newtonin kanssa toisistaan riippumatta tai riippuen).

Sitten on vielä erikseen tämän Strathernin kirjan julistaminen Aivan Poskettomaksi Teokseksi. Malta kunhan saan yhteenvedon kirjoitetuksi! Äsken varsinaisen tarinan viimeisillä sivuilla sain eteeni lätkän: "Your selection exceeds the copy limit set by the publisher of this book." Ja siihen loppui muistiinpanojen tekeminen. En tosiaankaan moiti publisheria. Melkein joka sivulta kopioin pitkiä pätkiä leikepöydälle. Tiedä, vaikka olisi joku tietty prosenttiosuus tekstin kokonaismäärästä ja noudatettaisiin kaikissa sähkökirjoissa, mutta ennen en siihen ole törmännyt eli näin suurta osaa teoksesta leikepöydälle poiminut. Enpä tiedä kumpi on mehevämpää Stratnernin posketon eli surutta sovinnaisuuden rajat ylittävä teksti vai yhtä surutta samat rajat ylittävät Leibnizin teot ja toiminta. Käytännön toimissa Leibniz Schopen täysin lättää.

Näillä huomatuksilla tunnen olevani pakotettu antamaan arvosanaksi täydet viisi tähteä.

Pagetop Pagetop Pagetop

Sisällysluettelo Contents Содержание (Code: (1,2,3,4,5))

1640001 Title Page
20002 Introduction
50003 Leibniz’s Life and Works
650004 Afterword
700005 Further Information
70000501 From Leibniz’s Writings
79000502 3Chronology of Significant Philosophical Dates
85000503 Chronology of Leibniz’s Life
88000504 Recommended Reading
900006 About the Author
900007 Copyright
92000701 About the Publisher
Pagetop

Muistiinpanot Highlights Примечания (Code: h)

1 (3)
He always took on as many appointments as he could and insisted upon being paid the full salary for these positions. He would become highly indignant when his pay was stopped because his employers had heard he was off working somewhere else.
2 (3)
Bertrand Russell, who wrote one of the finest critical works on Leibniz’s philosophy, was of the opinion that Leibniz had produced two philosophies. The first was a simple philosophy for public consumption: a shallow optimistic metaphysics intended to delight princesses. His other, less optimistic ideas he consigned to his trunk. These were part of a more complex, logical, and profound system which could only be understood with difficulty by minds of the caliber of Leibniz himself (and Russell, of course).
3 (8)
he also wrote a paper that set out the theoretical basis for a computer (almost three hundred years before Turing’s seminal
4 (16)
Despite all this socializing, Leibniz remained as mentally hyperactive as ever. A cornucopia of brilliant ideas flowed from his brain, several of such fundamental importance that any one of them would have guaranteed its originator immortality in his field. It was during this period that he invented integral and differential calculus. He also discovered binary arithmetic, though he assumed (wrongly) that the Chinese had discovered this before him – as he understood (correctly) that it was implicit in the Yin and Yang theories of the I Ching.
5 (22)
As a result of Leibniz’s discovery of calculus, whose calculations involved diminishing values receding to the infinitesimally small, he came to see that things ultimately consisted of infinitesimally small points which had neither space nor time as attributes. These he would eventually call ‘monads’.
6 (24)
For Leibniz there were thus three types of truth. First, there were truths that could be reduced to definition. For example: Euclid’s definition, ‘An acute angle is an angle less than a right angle’. Second, there were identical propositions, such as one finds in mathematics. For instance: 142,857 × 7 = 999,999. All truths derived from reason can be reduced to one or the other of these two types of truth. The third type of truth consisted of empirical propositions – those which could be derived from experience. For example: ‘The River Thames runs through London’. This is not a logically necessary truth, it is contingent.
7 (26)
This principle of sufficient reason stated that nothing happened in the world without there being a sufficient reason why it should happen in this way and no other.
8 (27)
he even considered the possibility of a ship that could travel through space – though the latter was abandoned when he correctly surmised that there wouldn’t be enough air to power the mechanical sails.
9 (34)
if only a way could be found to transmute base metals into gold, he could become financially independent. Then he wouldn’t have to spend so much of his valuable time avoiding his official duties in the court library
10 (35)
Leibniz retired to the library and emerged some time later with a revolutionary treatise setting out his ideas on calculus. The reaction to this document at court is not recorded, but when it was published in Europe it caused a furor. Newton claimed that he had discovered calculus long ago, and that Leibniz had stolen the idea from his unpublished papers which he had been shown in London. In no time a great controversy was raging, and the finest minds in Europe began taking sides, writing angry letters to the learned journals.
11 (39)
Leibniz’s philosophy is a system of great beauty and in its essentials, surprising simplicity. He held that there are an infinite number of substances that make up the world. These are called monads, and are the ultimate constituents of all things, including God. If something occupies space it must have extension; this means it can be divided and is thus complex. Therefore these ultimate simple monads cannot have extension and are consequently not material. So the world is made up of an infinite number of metaphysical points.
12 (42)
and all nature is the clock of God (‘horlogium dei’). What exists may not be a perfect creation, but its imperfection is unavoidable owing to its nature.
13 (42)
Likewise, for the world to be created at all there had to be a sufficient reason. This was God. Because God was good, he would of course create the best world. But according to the principle of contradiction, this had to be a possible world. This meant that God had created ‘the best of all possible worlds’.
14 (43)
Bertrand Russell, the Voltaire of the early twentieth century, was to describe as a shallow optimistic metaphysics for princesses. Russell extended this criticism to Leibniz’s entire Monadology,
15 (44)
Each monad is ‘windowless’ in that it has no perception or effect on the monads around it; yet at the same time each monad is said to mirror the universe. Together they exist in an exhaustive hierarchy. Superior monads have a higher degree of consciousness: they mirror the universe much more clearly and distinctly.
16 (46)
All this monadology may sound to us, as it did to Bertrand Russell, like an overly ingenious fairy tale. It also has a number of apparent flaws. How, for instance, can the material world consist of immaterial objects?
17 (47)
His monads were indisputably metaphysical. What is interesting is that his purely rational philosophizing should bear such an uncanny resemblance to modern scientific materialistic theorizing.
18 (47)
Leibniz concluded that we do not perceive the ultimate constituents of the universe. All we perceive is their appearance.
19 (49)
Our knowledge of the world depends entirely upon our perceptual apparatus: sight, touch, smell, hearing, and so forth. Especially sight. We tend to convince ourselves that the real world is as we see it.
20 (50)
All we perceive is the appearance that our perceptual apparatus is capable of perceiving.
21 (51)
Leibniz’s other major contribution was in the field of logic. This was to prove the first major advance in logic since Aristotle.
22 (51)
Here my marking for copy exceeded the limit set bh the publisher of the book. I do not complain!
Pagetop

Sanasto Vocabulary Словарь (Code: w)

1 verve (32)
lennokkuus,
2 gullible (34)
herkkäuskoinen, helposti suostuttu uskomaan jotain; herkkäuskoinen.
Pagetop

Kirjanmerkit Bookmarks Закладки (Code: b)

1ontents +93p=93p99%**************************************************
220180218+-77p=16p17%********
320180219+77p=93p99%**************************************************
Pagetop

Strathern-Leibniz-ajk.txt o MyeBooks o 20180217-20180219, 94 pages, 5* SalesInfo o eng

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