Brian Kemple: Essential Russian grammar

MyeBooks 20180410-2214
Kempe-RusGrammar-ajk.txt (* txt -> HTML)
2,3825,213,gra,eng,20161120,20161120,5,Brian Kemple: Essential Russian grammar
20161120-20161120, 213 pages, 5* SalesInfo o eng

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Sisällysluettelo Contents Содержание (Code: (1,2,3,4,5))

2330001 CONTENTS
70002 Introduction
7000201 How to Study Essential Russian Grammar
90003 Suggestions for Vocabulary Building
90004 List of Abbreviations
100005 Pronunciation
10000501 The Russian Alphabet
130006 Vowels and Consonants
150007 Stress
160008 Word Order
170009 “There Is,” “There Are”
180010 How to Form Questions
200011 Negation
210012 Nouns
21001201 Gender
21001202 Case
230013 Noun Declension
23001301 The Nominative Singular
23001302 The Accusative Singular The Genitive Singular The Dative Singular The Instrumental Singular
34001303 The Prepositional Singular Noun Plurals The Nominative Plural
39001304 The Accusative Plural
39001305 The Genitive Plural The Dative Plural The Instrumental Plural The Prepositional Plural
410014 Special Noun Declensions and Irregular Nouns Collective Nouns and Nouns with Only Singular or Only Plural Forms
440015 Adjectives
440016 Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns
44001601 Forms of Adjectives Hard Adjectives Soft Adjectives
46001602 Use of Adjectives Short Forms of Adjectives Formation of the Short Form Use of the Short Form Comparison of Adjectives: The Comparative Formation of the Comparative Use of the Comparative
46001603 The Superlative Degree
610017 Adverbs Adverbs Derived from Adjectives Comparison of Adverbs Other Adverbs Adverbs of Time Adverbs of Place Adverbs of Degree Adverbs of Quantity Miscellaneous Adverbs
680018 Pronouns Personal Pronouns Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives Interrogative and Relative Pronouns and Adjectives Indefinite and Negative Pronouns Reflexive, Emphatic, Reciprocal and Other Pronouns
830019 Prepositions Prepositions Used with the Accusative Only Prepositions Used with the Genitive Only Prepositions Used with the Dative Only Prepositions Used with the Instrumental Only Prepositions Used with the Prepositional Only Prepositions Used with More Than One Case Interrelation of Prepositions in Sentences of Motion
1030020 Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions
1100021 Verbs: Formation Tense and Aspect
1620022 Verbs: Aspect. Basic Differences Between Imperfective and Perfective Aspect and Negation Aspect of Infinitives and Imperatives Structural Relations Between Imperfectives and Perfectives Aspectival Pairs of an Attempt/Succeed Nature
1760023 Telling Time
1780024 Useful Expressions
1810025 Appendix I: Special Noun Declensions and Irregular Nouns Masculine Nouns Feminine Nouns Neuter Nouns
1810026 GEN. ?á???? ?????é? DAT. ?á???? ?????? INSTR. ?á????? ??????? PREP. ?á???? ??????
1810027 “time”) are declined as follows: SINGULAR PLURAL NOM. ??é?? ??????á ACC. ??é?? ??????á GEN. ??é???? ?????? DAT. ??é???? ??????á? INSTR. ??é????? ??????á?? PREP. ??é???? ??????á?
1890028 Appendix II: Declension of Numerals Cardinal Numerals Ordinal Numerals
1930029 Appendix III: Declension of Names
1940030 A Glossary of Grammatical Terms The Parts of Speech Words About Verbs Words About Nouns Miscellaneous Terms The Parts of the Sentence
2050031 Index
2050032 ### enfi

Muistiinpanot Highlights Примечание (Code: h)

1 (22)
In Russian the relationships between nouns are indicated by the endings of the nouns, no matter what word order is used.
2 (27)
?á??? ??ý ??é??. Give him some bread. ?? ????? ???? Do you want any water?
3 (30)
The dative case is also often used in impersonal constructions: ??á?? ??????? (“Ivan is cold”); ???? ?á??? (“Sonia is hot”).
4 (30)
??á? ???á?? ???? ???á??. Ivan is preventing Sonia from reading.
5 (69)
1. When ?? refers to one person, long-form adjectives modifying it are in the singular, but short-form adjectives are in the plural: ?? ó???? ?ó???? ???ó???. You are very sleepy today. ?? ????. You are right.
6 (69)
3. When the third person pronouns are governed by a preposition, the letter ?- is added to the beginning: ? ??? (“with him”), ??? ?? ??? (“one of them”). 4. To express “— and I,” Russian uses the form ?? ? —. Thus: ?? ? ??á??? (“my brother and I”).
7 (90)
? (?? before certain double consonants; WITH ACCUSATIVE: “to, into; per”; WITH PREPOSITIONAL: “in, at”) ACC: ????á ?? ????? ? ?????ý (“we came to Moscow yesterday”); ?? ????? ? ?ý??? (“he went into the kitchen”); ??? ?á?? ? ???é?? (“three times per week”) PREP.: ??????? ? ?????é (“to be born in Moscow”); ? ?ý??? (“in the kitchen”); ? ????ó?? (“at the office”); ? ???á? (“in the mountains”); ? ??á????? (“in one’s old age”); ? ???á???? (“in despair”) ?? (WITH NOMINATIVE, together with ???: “what sort of?”; WITH ACCUSATIVE: “[to a place] behind or beyond; for, in return for; in place of; in”; WITH INSTRUMENTAL: “[at a place] behind or beyond; at; for; after”) NOM.: ??? ?? ?? ??????á???? (“what sort of mess is this?”); ??? ?? ?? ????? (“what kind of bird is this?”)
8 (90)
?? (WITH ACCUSATIVE: “on[to]; to [instead of ? with certain nouns]; by; for”; WITH PREPOSITIONAL: “on, at”)
9 (93)
? (?? before vowels, ó?? before certain double consonants; WITH ACCUSATIVE: “against [in actions of contact]”; WITH PREPOSITIONAL: “about, concerning”) ACC.: ???á??? ??????? ? ??á?? (“the ship broke up on the rocks”); ????á???? ? ?é???? (“to lean against a tree”) PREP.: ?? ???????á? ??? ? ????? ?????é????? (“he told us about his trip”); ?? ?????? ? ???ó?? (“we are talking about the weather”)
10 (110)
The Russian verb system has only three tenses: present, past and future. However, Russian has a categorization of verbs that has almost no parallel in English: nearly every Russian verb is of one of two aspects, imperfective or perfective. It takes some time and effort to gain a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which these two aspects are used, but the most basic and important distinction between them is readily understandable: Imperfective verbs describe actions without reference to the completion of those actions. They may describe an action in general (“Fish swim but people walk”), or an action in progress (“She was reading when I called”), or a repeated or habitual action (“They skate every day”). Perfective verbs describe actions that have been or will be completed (“She has read the book”; “She will read the book”).
11 (110)
The Infinitive The Present Tense Patterns of Present Tense Conjugation Infinitives Ending in -??? Infinitives Ending in -??? Infinitives Ending in -??? Infinitives Ending in -??? Infinitives Ending in -??? Infinitives Ending in -??? Infinitives Ending in -??? Infinitives Ending in Other Than Vowel-Plus-?? Some Additional Irregular Verbs
12 (122)
Six important additional irregular verbs are: ???? (“to give”)/???, ????, ????, ????, ?????, ???ý?; ???? (“to eat”)/??, ???, ???, ???, ????, ???; é???? (“to go by conveyance”)/é??, é????, etc.; ????? (“to take”)/?????ý, ????????, etc.; ????é??? (“to read through”)/ ????ý, ????????, etc.; ???é?? (“to want, to like”)—which has a Conjugation I singular and a Conjugation II plural—???ý, ?ó????, ?ó???, ????, ?????, ????.
13 (122)
The Imperative or Command Form The Past Tense The Future Tense The Future Tense of Perfective Verbs The Future Tense of Imperfective Verbs The Suffix -??;
14 (131)
?? ?á??? ??????á????. They often meet (each other). ?? ?????? ?á???? ????. They see each other every day.
15 (131)
2. There are a few verbs that change their meaning more drastically when -?? is added; for instance: ??ý???? (“to listen”) ??ý?????? (“to obey”) ?????á?? (“to recognize”) ?????á???? (“to confess”) ??????? (“to consist of”) ????????? (“to take place”)
16 (131)
??? ??? ???????? How’s life treating you?
17 (135)
2. Some reflexive verbs can be used impersonally to express a physical state or feeling; they take the dative of the person to whom the action refers. The verb ???é???? (“to want”) is frequently used in this way: ??? ?ó????? ????. I feel hungry. ??ý ?ó????? ????. He feels thirsty. ??á?? ?? ???ó??????. My brother doesn’t feel like working. ??? ?? ?????. I don’t feel sleepy.
18 (137)
In Russian there are 14 kinds of motion that are each expressed by two separate imperfective verbs. These imperfective pairs are: ?????/??? (“to go,” on foot); é?????/é???? (“to travel”); ?é????/???á?? (“to run”); ???á??/???é?? (“to fly”); ??á????/????? (“to swim, float”); ?????/???? (“to carry”); ?????/???? (“to lead”); ?????/???? (“to convey, transport”); ?á????/????? (“to climb”); ?????/????? (“to drive, chase”); ????á??/????? (“to drag”); ?ó?????/????? (“to crawl”); ???á??/????? (“to roll”); ??????/????? (“to wander”).
19 (137)
The Conditional Participles Active Participles Passive Participles Gerunds Formation of the Present Gerund Formation of the Past Gerund Use of the Gerund Verbal Prefixes
20 (153)
Prefixes are an important element of numerous Russian verbs, imperfective as well as perfective.
21 (154)
PREFIX VERB WITHOUT PREFIX VERB WITH PREFIX ?- (??-; “into”) ????? (“to go”) ?????? (“to enter”) ??- (???-, ??-; “upward”) ???é?? (“to fly”) ?????é?? (“to fly up, take off”) ??- (“out of”) ????? (“to lead”) ??????? (“to lead out”) ??- (“up to, to the end”) ???á?? (“to read”) ?????á?? (“to read up to [a certain point]”) ??- (“behind, beyond”; beginning of an action; filling up) ?????? (“to let go”) ???????? (“to launch”) ????á?? (“to be silent”) ??????á?? (“to fall silent”) ???ó??? (“to build”) ?????ó??? (“to build up [an area]”) ??- (??-; “out; completely”) ????? (“to take”) ????á?? (“to pick out, choose”) ???á?? (“to write”) ?????á?? (“to cover with writing”) ??- (“on, onto; a lot”) ???á?? (“to fall”) ?????á?? (“to fall upon, attack”) ???? (“to drink”) ????? (“to drink a lot”) ???- (“over”) ???á?? (“to write”) ??????á?? (“to superscribe, endorse”) ?- (??-; “around, about”) é???? (“to drive”) ???é???? (“to detour”) ??- (???-; “away from; back”) ????? (“to go”) ??????? (“to move away from”) ???á?? (“to give”) ?????á?? (“to give back”) ????- (“across, through; again; over and above”) ???? (“to live”) ??????? (“to experience”) ???á?? (“to read”) ???????á?? (“to reread”) ???????? (“to fulfill”) ???????????? (“to overfulfill”) ??- (“fora while”; beginning of an action) ???é?? (“to sit”) ?????é?? (“to sit for a while”) ????? (“to love”) ??????? (“to start to love”) ???- (“under; toward”) ????á?? (“to hold”) ???????á?? (“to support”) ????? (“to go”) ???????? (“to approach”) ????- (“pre-”) ????á?? (“to tell”) ????????á?? (“to foretell”) ???- (“coming to; getting used to”) ????? (“to go”) ???????? (“to arrive”) ???- (“through, by, past”) ????? (“to go”) ???????? (“to pass by”) ???- (“apart; un-”) ???? (“to hit”) ?????? (“to break into bits”) ????? (“to love”) ???????? (“to cease to love”) ?- (??-; “downward; off”) ????? (“to go”) ?????? (“to come down, go off”) ?- (“away from”) ????? (“to take”) ???á?? (“to take away”)
22 (165)
2. If the degree of negation is not total, the attitude of the speaker is a determining factor as to which aspect is used. If the action being denied or negated was never expected to happen, the imperfective is used: ? ?? ?????á? ?????á ???ó???. I didn’t get any letter today [but wasn’t expecting one].
23 (172)
3. To generalize about identifying a given verb as being imperfective or perfective: (a) When one verb in an aspectival pair has a prefix and the other does not, the prefixed one is almost always perfective. When both verbs have prefixes, the longer of the two is likely to be the imperfective. (b) Verbs with infinitives ending in -?????, -???? or -??? tend to be imperfective, and those ending in -??? are often perfective. (c) When there is an alternation between a and o in the stem of a verb pair, the one with the a is likely to be imperfective and the one with the ? perfective.
24 (174)
Although the two members of aspectival pairs generally have the same meaning (except with regard to aspect), there are a number of important verbs whose imperfectives indicate an attempt to achieve a certain goal, and whose perfectives denote the successful attainment of the goal or completion of the action. Examples are: IMPERFECTIVE PERFECTIVE ????? (“to try to awaken”) ???????? (“to awaken”) ?????á???? (“to try to obtain”) ??????? (“to obtain”) ???á?????? (“to try to prove”) ?????á?? (“to prove”) ????? (“to try to catch”) ????á?? (“to catch”) ???????? (“to try to explain”) ???????? (“to explain”) ???á?? (“to try to solve”) ????? (“to solve”) ?????á?? (“to try to convince”) ?????? (“to convince”) ????á?????? (“to try to persuade”) ???????? (“to persuade”)

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Brian Kemple: Essential Russian grammar
2,3825,213,gra,eng,20161120,20161120,5,Brian Kemple: Essential Russian grammar
20161120-20161120, 213 pages, 5* SalesInfo o eng

A lot to be ruminated

Dull as all grammars, but deeply convincing. Presenting this grammar the author is modest and warns several times of its limited nature. When reading it you get the opposite feeling. It seems that nothing is forgotten. Versatile and carefully formulated explanations are always provided with examples and translations. Stress is always indicated. Much trouble is seen to overcome the limitations of the screen. A special treatment is offered for complicated tables. You may click and get the table as such without surrounding text in front of you and the return back where you were.

It is easy to see that this publication emerges as chrystallization from a long experience and careful documentation.

The author has well deserved five stars.

Paljon märehdittävää

Tylsä kuten kaikki kieliopit, mutta syvästi vakuuttava. Tämän kieliopin esittelyssä tekijä on vaatimaton ja varoittaa useita kertoja sen rajallisuudesta. Sitä lukiessa syntyy päinvastainen käsitys. Näyttää siltä, että mitään ei ole unohdettu. Monipuolinen ja huolellisesti muotoiltu selityksiin liittyy aina esimerkit ja käännökset. Sanan painotus on aina ilmoitettu. Paljon vaivaa on nähty tietokonenäytön rajoitusten voittamiseksi. Erityinen tarkastelu tarjotaan monimutkaisille taulukoille. Voit valita ja saada ruudulle sellaisenaan ilman ympäröivää tekstiä ja palata takaisin missä olit.

On helppo nähdä, että tämä julkaisu on tiivistelmä pitkästä kokemuksesta ja huolellisesta dokumentoinnista.
Tekijä on hyvin ansainnut viisi tähteä.


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